Revisão: Volume 2 - História Militar

Revisão: Volume 2 - História Militar

A guerra é um assunto atraente. É comum a quase todas as sociedades e períodos históricos conhecidos. The Cambridge History of Warfare fornece um relato detalhado da guerra no Ocidente desde a antiguidade até os dias atuais e é único por causa de sua tese controversa de que a guerra nas sociedades ocidentais seguiu um caminho único que leva ao domínio ocidental do globo. Da vitória grega em Maratona à Guerra do Golfo, legível e confiável, The Cambridge History of Warfare coloca no contexto os principais eventos na história do combate armado. Todos os aspectos da guerra em terra, mar e ar são cobertos: armas e tecnologia; estratégia e defesa; disciplina e inteligência; mercenários e exércitos permanentes; cavalaria e infantaria; cavalaria e Blitzkrieg; assalto de guerrilha e arsenais nucleares. Este volume, publicado pela primeira vez como The Cambridge Illustrated History of Warfare, inclui mapas e uma bibliografia atualizada.

"O Último dos Dez Meninos Fighter" pretende ser uma prequela e uma sequência do capítulo que Jimmy escreveu para "Ten Fighter Boys", preenchendo as 'peças que faltavam'. Os gráficos do livro: sua infância antes da eclosão da guerra em 1939; as decisões que ele fez; e, aqueles que foram feitos para ele. Ele descreve como um garoto comum da classe trabalhadora de Maidstone foi impelido para a mais extraordinária das situações, colocando-o no meio da ação nos céus de Kent durante o verão e o outono de 1940.

Auxiliado por um grande número de fotografias inéditas, este livro conta a história da campanha de ambos os lados e fornece relatos detalhados de testemunhas oculares de pilotos individuais que estiveram envolvidos na luta. Além das operações diárias, os apêndices conterão listas abrangentes de vitórias e derrotas.

Este livro fornece um guia detalhado para as várias características internas e externas que distinguem cada versão dos caças pesados ​​Messerschmitt Me 210 e Me 410. Ele permitirá que os leitores vejam a diferença entre a infinidade de subtipos e identifiquem as várias modificações e sistemas de armas e pacotes de conversão que foram usados. O motivo ou a necessidade de modificações específicas também são descritos. O livro, baseado em anos de pesquisa, será de imenso interesse para entusiastas da aviação, modeladores e historiadores fascinados pelas atividades e aeronaves da Luftwaffe entre 1933 e 1945.


Mark Koyama

Perseguição e tolerância: o longo caminho para a liberdade religiosa & # 8221 com Noel D. Johnson. Cambridge University Press, abril de 2019 [Pedido na Amazon e Cambridge University Press] [Site] [Podcast]

A liberdade religiosa se tornou um valor emblemático no Ocidente. Incorporado em constituições e defendido por políticos e pensadores de todo o espectro político, é para muitos um valor absoluto, algo além de qualquer dúvida. No entanto, como surgiu, e por quê, permanece amplamente incompreendido. Traçando a história da perseguição religiosa desde a queda de Roma até os dias atuais, Noel D. Johnson e Mark Koyama fornecem uma nova explicação do nascimento da liberdade religiosa. Este livro trata o assunto de forma integrativa, combinando o raciocínio econômico com evidências históricas da Europa medieval e do início da modernidade. Os autores elucidam os incentivos econômicos e políticos que moldaram as ações dos líderes políticos durante os períodos de construção do Estado e crescimento econômico.

'Um novo argumento profundo sobre a relação entre poder político e religião na formação do mundo moderno. Se você quiser saber de onde veio a liberdade de que você atualmente desfruta, por enquanto, este é o livro para ler. '

James Robinson, Richard L. Pearson Professor de Conflito Global, Universidade de Chicago

'Johnson e Koyama investigam a fascinante intersecção do estado e da religião no final da Idade Média e no início da Europa moderna. Em vez de padrões duradouros de tolerância ou perseguição religiosa, de liberdade ou tirania, eles contam uma rica história de mudança e variação nas regras, instituições e sociedades. Este é um livro importante e persuasivo. '

John Joseph Wallis, Professor de Economia Mancur Olson, University of Maryland, College Park

'Escrito com lucidez, argumentado de forma incisiva, este livro mostra como a tolerância religiosa surgiu não apenas de ideias, mas também de instituições que motivaram as pessoas - especialmente os poderosos - a aceitar e agir de acordo com essas ideias. Um relato brilhante do início da transição da Europa moderna de privilégios baseados na identidade para mercados abertos e governança imparcial. '

Sheilagh Ogilvie, Universidade de Cambridge

“Esta análise do processo histórico subjacente à formação do Estado moderno é uma realização acadêmica fantástica. As implicações para o presente, em termos dos riscos associados à perda dos valores liberais fundamentais dos modernos estados ocidentais, não serão perdidas para o leitor atento. '

Alberto Bisin, Universidade de Nova York

Avaliações

O estado, religião e liberdade: um ensaio de revisão de perseguição e tolerância & # 8221 Review of Austrian Economics, por Metin Cosgel [versão publicada] [PDF]

Religião e discriminação: um ensaio de revisão de perseguição e tolerância: o longo caminho para a liberdade religiosa & # 8221 Journal of Economic Literature, de Sriya Iyer [Visualização da AEA]

Uma revisão da perseguição e tolerância: o longo caminho para a liberdade religiosa & # 8221 Journal of Economic History, de Eric Chaney [JEH]

Uma revisão da perseguição e tolerância: o longo caminho para a liberdade religiosa & # 8221 Public Choice, por Vincent Geloso [Public Choice]

Uma revisão da perseguição e tolerância: o longo caminho para a liberdade religiosa & # 8221 EH.Net, por Jared Rubin [EH.Net]

Documentos de Trabalho Atuais

Naufragado por Rents & # 8221 com Fernando Arteaga e Desiree Desierto [Vox fala sobre Podcast] [Artigo Vox] [SSRN] [CEPR]

Terra Fraturada e Fragmentação Política,& # 8221 com Jesús Fernández-Villaverde, Youhong Lin e Tuan-Hwee Sng. [SSRN "] [CEPR] [Apresentação longa] [Apresentação curta] Revisões solicitadas no Quarterly Journal of Economics

A economia política da competição por status: Leis suntuárias na Europa pré-industrial & # 8221 com Desiree Desierto [SSRN] Revisões solicitadas no Jornal de Direito e Economia

Pandemias, lugares e populações: evidências da peste negra & # 8221 com Remi Jedwab e Noel D. Johnson [PDF] [SSRN]

Resistindo à Educação & # 8221 com Jean-Paul Carvalho. [SSRN] [slides]

Artigos Publicados

Seapower & # 8221 com Ahmed S. Rahman e Tuan-Hwee Sng,” Jornal de Economia Política Histórica Volume 1, Edição 2. 2021. [SSRN]

Os fundamentos institucionais da liberdade religiosa,Jornal de Economia, Gestão e Religião Volume 1, Edição 2. 2021. [SSRN] [Versão publicada]]

Cidades medievais através da lente das teorias econômicas urbanas,& # 8221 com Remi Jedwab e Noel D. Johnson Ciência Regional e Economia Urbana [SSRN] [CEPR] [Versão publicada]

Saúde vs. Economia: Política de Pandemia Politicamente Ótima & # 8221 com Desiree Desierto Jornal de Instituições Políticas e Economia Política [SSRN] [Versão publicada] Versões anteriores [CEPR] [COVID Economics, vol. 41]

O impacto econômico da peste negra & # 8221 com Remi Jedwab e Noel D Johnson Journal of Economic Literature, Futuro [CEPR]

Choques negativos e perseguições em massa: evidências da peste negra & # 8221 com Remi Jedwab e Noel D Johnson Journal of Economic Growth, Dezembro de 2019, Volume 24, Páginas 345-395 [PDF] [Versão Publicada]

Geopolítica e a pequena divergência da Ásia: uma análise comparativa da construção do Estado na China e no Japão após 1850 & # 8221 com Chiaki Moriguchi e Tuan-Hwee Sng Journal of Economics Organization and Behavior, Novembro de 2018, Volume 155, Páginas 178-204 [SSRN] [slides] [Vídeo] Peste, política e pogroms: a peste negra, o Estado de Direito e a perseguição aos judeus no Sacro Império Romano & # 8221 com Theresa Finley Jornal de Direito e Economia, Maio de 2018, Volume 61, Edição 2, páginas 253-277 [SSRN] [Versão publicada]

Estados e crescimento econômico: capacidade e restrições & # 8221 com Noel D. Johnson, Explorações na História Econômica, Abril de 2017, Volume 64, Edição 2, pp 1–20 [Versão Publicada] [PDF]

Educação, identidade e comunidade: lições da emancipação judaica & # 8221 com Jean-Paul Carvalho e Michael Sacks, Escolha Pública, Abril de 2017, Volume 171, Edição 1, pp 119–143 [Versão Publicada] [PDF]

China Unificada e Europa Dividida & # 8221 com Chiu Yu Ko e Tuan-Hwee Sng Análise Econômica Internacional, Fevereiro de 2018, volume 59, edição 1, páginas 285-327 [versão publicada] [SSRN] [Slate] [The Upshot] [slides]

Comunidades judaicas e crescimento da cidade na Europa pré-industrial & # 8221 com Noel D. Johnson, Journal of Development Economics, Julho de 2017 Volume 127, pp 339-354 [Versão Publicada] [SSRN]

Perseguições aos judeus e choques climáticos 1100-1800 & # 8221 com Warren Anderson e Noel D. Johnson Economic Journal, Junho de 2017, Volume 127, Edição 602, pp 924-958 [Versão Publicada] [PDF] [ssrn] [VOX] [Política Externa] [Times of Israel] [Wired] [Tablet] [Israel Hayom] [Vencedor do RES prêmio de melhor artigo publicado na EJ em 2017]

Emancipação Judaica e Cisma: Desenvolvimento Econômico e Mudança Religiosa & # 8221 com Jean-Paul Cavalho Journal of Comparative Economics, Agosto de 2016, Volume 44, Edição 3, pp. 562–584 [PDF] [Versão Publicada]

A longa transição de um estado natural para uma ordem econômica liberal & # 8221 International Review of Law and Economics, agosto de 2016, Volume 47,, pp. 29-39 [PDF] [Versão publicada]

Estabilidade monetária e estado de direito & # 8221 com Blake Johnson. Journal of Financial Stability, Abril de 2015, Volume 17, pp. 46-58. [PDF] [Versão Publicada]

Impostos, advogados e o declínio dos julgamentos de feitiçaria na França & # 8221 com Noel D. Johnson. Jornal de Direito e Economia, Fevereiro de 2014, Volume 57, Número 1, pp. 77-112 [PDF] [Washington Post] [Globe & Mail]

A Lei e Economia de Processos Privados na Revolução Industrial InglaterraEscolha Pública Março de 2014, Volume 159, Número 1-2, pp. 277-298, [Versão Publicada] [PDF]
Vencedor conjunto do Prêmio Tullock de Melhor Artigo Publicado em Escolha Pública por um acadêmico júnior

Agricultura tributária e as origens da capacidade do Estado na Inglaterra e na França & # 8221 com Noel D. Johnson. Explorações na História Econômica Janeiro de 2014, Volume 51, Número 1, pp. 1-20. [Versão Publicada] [PDF]

Centralização Legal e o Nascimento do Estado Secular & # 8221 com Noel D. Johnson. Journal of Comparative Economics Novembro de 2013, Volume 41, Número 4, pp. 959–978. [Versão publicada] [PDF] [slides] [NEP-HIS]

A transformação da oferta de trabalho no mundo pré-industrialJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization Fevereiro de 2012, Volume 82, Número 2, pp. 505-523. [Versão publicada] [PDF] [FT]

Associações de promotores na Revolução Industrial na Inglaterra: fornecedores privados de bens públicos?Journal of Legal Studies Janeiro de 2012, Volume 41, Número 1, pp. 95-130. [Versão Publicada] [PDF]

Fugindo da mácula da usura: a proibição da usura como barreira à entradaExplorações na História Econômica Dezembro de 2010, Volume 47, Número 4, pp. 420-442. [Versão Publicada] [PDF]

A economia política da expulsão: a regulamentação do empréstimo de dinheiro para judeus na Inglaterra medievalEconomia Política Constitucional Dezembro de 2010, Volume 32, Número 4, pp. 374-406. [Versão Publicada] [PDF]

Instintos e instituições: a ascensão do mercado & # 8221 com Jean-Paul Carvalho, Avanços na economia austríaca 2010, Volume 13, pp. 285-309. [Versão Publicada] [PDF]

Capítulos de livros

Economia política & # 8221 The Handbook of Cliometrics, editado por Michael Haupert e Claude Diebolt, Springer 2020. [Rascunho] [Versão publicada]

História Econômica & # 8221 The Routledge Companion to Jewish History and Historiography, editado por Dean Phillip Bell, Routledge 2019. [PDF] [Link para comprar o livro]

O Estado, Tolerância e Liberdade Religiosa & # 8221 com Noel D. Johnson, publicado em Iyer, Rubin e Carvalho (Eds.), Advances in the Economics of Religion, 2018, Palgrave. [ssrn]

Narrativas Analíticas & # 8221 An Economist's Guide to Economic History, editado por Matthias Blum e Christopher Colvin, pp 371-378 [versão publicada] [link para comprar o livro]

Estabelecendo uma nova ordem: o crescimento do estado e o declínio dos julgamentos de bruxas na França & # 8221 com Noel Johnson e John V.C Nye em Institutions, Innovation, and Industrialization: Essays in Economic History and Development, editado por Avner Greif, Lynne Kiesling e John V. C. Nye [SSRN] [Amazon>]

Resenhas de livros e ensaios de resenhas

Uma revisão das origens de rede da economia global de Hilton L. Root: Oriente x Ocidente em uma perspectiva de sistemas complexos ,,& # 8221 Escolha pública (2020). [Versão Publicada]

Uma revisão de Averting a Great Divergence: State and Economy in Japan, de Peer Vries, 1868-1937,EH.Net, Maio de 2020. Ligação]

Uma revisão do ensaio de fuga de RomaThe Journal of Economic Literature , Próxima prévia [SSRN]]

Um ensaio de revisão sobre as guildas europeiasReview of Austrian Economics, Março de 2020, Volume 33, Páginas 277-287
[SSRN] [Link]

Uma revisão de Nicholas Crafts's Forging Ahead, Falling Behind and Fighting Back: British Economic GrowthRevisão da História Econômica Volume 72, edição 2 de maio de 2019, páginas 774-775 [link]

Uma revisão dos partidos conservadores de Daniel Ziblatt e o nascimento da democracia,Journal of Economic History, Volume 78, edição 2. pp.940-942. Setembro de 2018 [link]

Uma revisão de From Warfare to Wealth: The Military Origins of Urban Prosperity in Europe, de Mark Dincecco e Massimiliano OnoratoEH.net Fevereiro de 2018. [Link]

Uma revisão de A Culture of Growth de Joel MoykrThe Independent Review Volume 22 Número 3. Inverno 2018 [PDF] [Link]

Uma revisão do WTF. Um tour econômico do estranho por Peter T. LeesonRevisão da Economia Austríaca Março de 2019, Volume 32, Edição 1, páginas 81-84 [Link] [PDF]

Uma Revisão da História Econômica da Guerra e da Formação do Estado por Jari Eloranta, Eric Golson, Andrei Markevich e Nicholas WolfEH.net Setembro de 2017. [Link]

Uma revisão do Grande Nivelador: Violência e a História da Desigualdade desde a Idade da Pedra até o Século XXI, de Walter SchiedelEscolha Pública Volume 172, Issue 3-4, pp 545-548. Setembro de 2017 [link] [PDF]

Uma revisão da ultrassociedade por Peter TurchinJournal of Bioeconomics, Volume 18, Edição 3, pp 239–242. Outubro de 2016 [link] [PDF]

Uma revisão de The Rise of Market Society in England 1066-1800 por Christine EisenbergJournal of Economic History, Vol 72, 3, pp. 931-933. Setembro 2015 [JEH] [PDF]

Uma revisão do Manifesto de História por Jo Guldi e David ArmitageJournal of Economic History, vol. 75, 2, pp. 584-587. Junho de 2015 [Link] [SSRN] [PDF]

Uma revisão do racionalismo, pluralismo e liberdadePublic Choice, vol. 163, N. 3, pp / 409-412, maio de 2015 [PDF]

Cliometria pré-industrial: um artigo de revisão.Assuntos econômicos Vol. 33, 2, pp. 268-279 2013 [Link] [PDF]

Resenha de The Long Divergence de Timur KuranEscolha Pública Vol. 154, Edição 3-4, pp 341-343 março de 2013 [Link]

Resenha de The Institutional Revolution de Douglas W. AllenEH.net [Ligação]

Revisão de The Predator State, de James K. Galbraith.Assuntos econômicos Vol. 29 de março de 2009 [Link]

Sou professor associado de economia na George Mason University.

Também sou pesquisador do Centro de Política e Pesquisa Econômica (CEPR), membro do F.A. Hayek Progam em PPE na GMU e bolsista sênior do Mercatus Center. Fui W. Glenn Campbell e Rita Ricardo Campbell National Fellow na Hoover Institution da Stanford University durante 2017-18.

Minha página do Google Scholar está aqui

Nascido e educado no Reino Unido, recebi meu DPhil (PhD) em economia pela Universidade de Oxford. Meus principais interesses de pesquisa estão na história econômica. Meu trabalho recente explora o aumento da tolerância religiosa no início da Europa moderna e o desenvolvimento comparativo do estado.

Meu livro com meu colega Noel D. Johnson, Perseguição e tolerância: o longo caminho para a liberdade religiosa foi publicado pela Cambridge University Press em 2019 e está disponível na Amazon e Cambridge University Press.


Novos e próximos lançamentos

Engenharia incorporada
Trabalho com gênero, segurança alimentar e gosto no Mali do século XX
Por Laura Ann Twagira

Narrativas comuns sobre o desenvolvimento na África perdem o trabalho tecnológico crítico das mulheres. O estudo de Twagira, em vez disso, posiciona as mulheres do Mali como engenheiras rurais cujo planejamento estratégico e trabalho ao longo do século XX garantiram sua segurança alimentar.

Nesta história social e intelectual de textura fina de gênero e criação de nação, Byfield captura o dinamismo do engajamento político das mulheres na Nigéria do pós-guerra. Ela ilumina a centralidade do gênero para o estudo do nacionalismo, oferecendo novas linhas de investigação para o final da era colonial e suas consequências para o futuro estado nigeriano.

A missão do detetive Andy Hayes parece clara: localizar um homem que atirou em um policial de Columbus há quarenta anos e desapareceu sem deixar vestígios. Mas logo, Hayes descobre uma série de assassinatos de anos que o levam por um caminho angustiante de conspiração e engano.

Ubuntu
George M. Houser e a luta pela paz e liberdade em dois continentes
Por Sheila D. Collins

A integridade moral de George M. Houser e a defesa influente do protesto não violento ajudaram a moldar o Movimento dos Direitos Civis americanos, as vitórias da independência anticolonial em toda a África e a derrubada do regime de apartheid sul-africano.

Trabalho de Aldeia
Desenvolvimento e Estatística Rural no século XX em Gana
Por Alice Wiemers

Esta história detalhada e inovadora da política rural de Gana detalha a importância crucial que os sistemas de desenvolvimento de vilas locais têm em escalas regional e nacional.

Casamento militarizando
Tradições conjugais dos soldados da África Ocidental no Império Francês Moderno
Por Sarah J. Zimmerman

Ao priorizar as mulheres e a conjugalidade na historiografia dos soldados coloniais africanos, Casamento militarizando historiciza como a subjugação das mulheres foi indispensável para a conquista militar e o domínio colonial em todo o Império Francês.

Através do prisma dos esportes e de uma variedade de perspectivas acadêmicas, esta antologia oferece uma visão sobre as experiências variadas e mutantes de atletas, fãs, comunidades e estados pós-coloniais africanos.

Mais de 99% dos alunos-atletas se profissionalizarão em outras atividades além dos esportes. Este livro é para os atletas universitários, seus orientadores e suas famílias. Ele fornece conselhos e percepções para o aluno-atleta típico sobre como navegar na experiência da faculdade e nome, imagem e direitos de licenciamento e se preparar para a vida após a formatura.

Notificações

Inscreva-se para ser notificado quando novos títulos nas áreas temáticas em que você está interessado. Você pode acompanhar Estudos Africanos, História dos EUA, História Mundial, Appalachia, Estudos Vitorianos, Ficção ou qualquer outro assunto.

Exame, mesa e cópias de revisão

Cópias para exames para consideração de adoção do curso estão disponíveis para livros com preço abaixo de $ 35. Os instrutores também podem solicitar uma cópia de mesa gratuita para cada 20 cópias de um livro pedido.

Você pode solicitar uma cópia de exame, uma cópia de mesa ou uma cópia de revisão diretamente nas páginas de descrição do livro em nosso site. Para obter instruções, leia Solicitando uma cópia de mesa, exame ou revisão.

Apoie a imprensa

A Ohio University Press, a editora universitária mais antiga de Ohio, e seu selo comercial, a Swallow Press, se dedicam a publicar livros de grande erudição e trabalho criativo. Você pode ajudar a imprensa a desenvolver seus pontos fortes e buscar novas oportunidades como editora de obras de qualidade duradoura fazendo uma doação.

Na imprensa

  • Crítica do livro de áudio no Gardenangelists podcast
    Postado em 11 de junho de 2021 para Tudo sobre flores
  • Comente no Crítica de livros do meio-oeste, Maio de 2021
    Postado em 11 de junho de 2021 para Uma História do Turismo na África
  • Comente no Journal of Contemporary History 56 (2), abril de 2021
    Postado em 11 de junho de 2021 para Ver como um cidadão
  • Comente em Agricultura e Valores Humanos, 2021
    Postado em 08 de junho de 2021 para Café não é para sempre
  • Página 99 Teste em Os Santos e o Estado, 5 de junho de 2021
    Postado em 07 de junho de 2021 para Os Santos e o Estado
  • Stephen Streeter citado em Gazeta artigo, 26 de maio de 2021
    Postado em 07 de junho de 2021 para Gerenciando a contra-revolução
  • Andrew Speno sobre os verdadeiros e supostos romances de guerra de Rickenbacker, Ilustrada a Primeira Guerra Mundial,, Primavera de 2021, No. 14
    Postado em 04 de junho de 2021 para As muitas vidas de Eddie Rickenbacker

Tweets por @OhioUnivPress


Histórias relacionadas

Simpatizante do nazismo no Exército dos EUA

Dale Maple ajudou dois prisioneiros de guerra alemães a escapar, planejou lutar contra os EUA e enfrentou um péssimo acerto de contas.

Quando o Napalm foi usado pela primeira vez na Segunda Guerra Mundial?

De 1943 em diante, os pedidos da substância incendiária chegaram à medida que os comandantes observavam a eficácia letal da arma química.

Sobrevivendo a Objetos do Dia D, Volumes sobre o Sacrifício

No National D-Day Memorial em Bedford, Virginia, esses artefatos das praias da Normandia são chamados de “Testemunhas Silenciosas”.

Encontrado: um pára-quedas rosa choque da segunda guerra mundial

A lembrança vívida pertencia a um membro do Army Air Corps que sobreviveu ao ataque a Pearl Harbor.

Se apenas mais pessoas tivessem a mesma coragem moral que este capitão alemão

Josef Sibille, da Wehrmacht, disse ao comandante de seu batalhão em 1941 que nem ele nem ninguém de sua companhia mataria nenhum judeu


Compartilhado

Resumo

Este artigo explora se a política socialista britânica antes da Primeira Guerra Mundial fornecia um espaço para uma masculinidade ou masculinidades contra-hegemônicas. A fim de revelar os pressupostos subjacentes sobre a masculinidade, uma série de aspectos da prática socialista são considerados, como a iconografia socialista e a linguagem empregada dentro do movimento. Oportunidades para rastrear masculinidades "subordinadas" (Tosh) também são fornecidas por momentos em que o edifício aparentemente monolítico da masculinidade é fraturado, expondo substratos para escrutínio. Os processos judiciais de Oscar Wilde de 1895 proporcionaram um momento desses e o artigo explora as respostas socialistas a ele e o que elas revelam sobre as masculinidades socialistas. Mas este artigo não se preocupa apenas com as percepções de masculinidade, mas também com as práticas cotidianas. Assim, dois aspectos importantes da masculinidade são examinados a fim de estabelecer se eles assumiram uma forma socialista específica: a homossociabilidade, especificamente camaradagem e paternidade. O artigo conclui considerando se a prática pré-figurativa socialista em relação à masculinidade era mais provável do que em quaisquer outros aspectos das relações de gênero.

Por exemplo, H. Pelling, As Origens do Partido Trabalhista, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1965 W. Kendall, O Movimento Revolucionário na Grã-Bretanha, 1900-21. The Origins of British Communism, Londres, Weidenfeld e Nicolson, 1969 R. Challinor, The Origins of British Bolshevism, Londres, Croom Helm, 1977.

Por exemplo, J. Hannam, 'Women and the ILP, 1890-1914', em D. James, T. Jowitt e K. Laybourn (eds), The Centennial History of the Independent Labour Party, Halifax, Ryburn, 1992 K. Hunt, Equivocal Feminists: the Social Democratic Federation and the Woman Question, 1884-1911, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1996. The Centennial History of the Independent Labour Party

Por exemplo K. Hunt, 'Fractured universality: the language of British socialism before the First War', em J. Belchem ​​e N. Kirk (eds), Languages ​​of Labor, Aldershot, Ashgate, 1997 J. Hannam e K. Hunt , 'Gênero as histórias do socialismo: um ensaio na crítica histórica', em M. Walsh (ed.), Working Out Gender. Perspectives from Labor History, Aldershot, Ashgate, 1999 J. Hannam e K. Hunt, Socialist Women, Britain 1880s to 1920s, London, Routledge, 2002.

A. Baron, ‘Olhando para os homens. Masculinidade e a construção de uma história da classe trabalhadora com gênero ", em A-L Shapiro (ed.), Feminists Revision History, New Brunswick, NJ, Rutgers University Press, 1994, p. 148. História da Revisão Feministas 148

M. Lake, ‘Socialism and manhood: a reply to Bruce Scates’, Labor History, 60, 1991, p. 114. Ver também M. Lake, 'Socialism and manhood: the case of William Lane', Labor History, 50, 1986 B. Scates, 'Socialism, feminism, and the case of William Lane: a reply to Marilyn Lake', Labor History, 59, 1990 M. Leach, 'Manly, true and white: masculine identity and Australian socialism', em G. Stokes (ed.), The Politics of Identity in Australia, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1997. 'Socialism and masculinidade: uma resposta à História do Trabalho de Bruce Scates 60 114

Ver, por exemplo, M. Crick, The History of the Social Democratic Federation, Halifax, Ryburn, 1994 K. Laybourn, The Rise of Socialism in Britain, Stroud, Sutton, 1997.

M. Francis, ‘Labor and gender’, em D. Tanner, P. Thane e N. Tiratsoo (eds), Labour's First Century, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2000. Labour's First Century

L. Ugolini, '"É apenas justiça conceder o sufrágio às mulheres": Partido Trabalhista Independente, homens e mulheres, o sufrágio, 1893-1905', em C. Eustance, J. Ryan e L. Ugolini (eds), A Suffrage Reader: Charting Directions in British Suffrage History, Leicester, Leicester University Press, 2000 L. Ugolini, '"Devemos defender nossos filhos": ILP men and suffrage militancy, 1905-14', Labor History Review, 67, 2, 2002. A Suffrage Leitor: Traçando direções na história do sufrágio britânico

Ver GL Kaster, 'Trabalhismo verdadeiro: trabalhadores organizados e a linguagem da masculinidade nos EUA, 1827-1877', Gênero e História, 13, 1, 2001. 'O verdadeiro homem trabalhista: trabalhadores organizados e a linguagem da masculinidade nos EUA , 1827-1877 'Gênero e História 13

Veja J. Welskopp, ‘Defining masculinity politically: the construction of masculinity in German Social Democracy, 1848-78’ (resumo), Proceedings, 19º Congresso Internacional de Ciências Históricas, Oslo, CISH, 2000, pp. 302-3. ‘Definindo a masculinidade politicamente: a construção da masculinidade na social-democracia alemã, 1848-78’ 302 3

J. Tosh, ‘O que os historiadores devem fazer com a masculinidade? Reflexões sobre a Grã-Bretanha do século XIX ', em RB Shoemaker e M. Vincent (eds), Gênero e História na Europa Ocidental, Londres, Arnold, 1998. Ver também J. Tosh,' A construção das masculinidades: a classe média no final do século XIX Britain ', em A. John and C. Eustance (eds), The Men's Share? Masculinidades, Apoio Masculino e Sufrágio Feminino na Grã-Bretanha, 1890-1920, Londres, Routledge, 1997 J. Tosh, A Man's Place. Masculinidade e o lar da classe média na Inglaterra vitoriana, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1999. Gênero e História na Europa Ocidental

S. O. Rose, Limited Livelihoods. Gênero e Classe na Inglaterra do Século XIX, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1992, p. 187. Meios de subsistência limitados. Gênero e classe na Inglaterra do século XIX 187

E. Showalter, Sexual Anarchy: Gender and Culture at the Fin de Siècle, Londres, Bloomsbury, 1991. Ver também A. Richardson e C. Willis (eds), The New Woman in Fiction and in Fact, Basingstoke, Palgrave, 2001. Anarquia sexual: gênero e cultura no Fin de Siècle

E. Hobsbawm, 'Man and woman: images on the left', History Workshop, 6, 1978. Ver também S. Alexander, A. Davin e E. Hostettler, 'Laboring women: a reply to Eric Hobsbawm', History Workshop, 8, 1979. Para uma exploração mais recente da iconografia de gênero do movimento trabalhista, consulte ED Weitz, 'O homem heróico e a mulher em constante mudança: gênero e política no comunismo europeu, 1917-1950', em LL Frader e SO Rose (eds), Gender and Class in Modern Europe, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1996.

L. Ugolini, ‘" Por todos os meios, deixe as senhoras terem uma chance ". The Workman's Times, representação trabalhista independente e sufrágio feminino, 189-4 ', em John and Eustance (eds), The Men's Share ?, pp. 71-5.

Para uma exploração das atitudes socialistas em relação ao consumo, consulte K. Hunt, 'Negotiating the border of the domestic: British socialist women and thepolitics ofconsum', Women's History Review, 9, 2, 2000. 'Negotiating the border of the domestic: Mulheres socialistas britânicas e a política de consumo 'Women's History Review 9 2

Labour Leader, 30 de março de 1895.

Justiça, 23 de setembro de 1893.

Veja Hunt, Equivocal Feminists, pp. 188-91.

Veja Hunt, Equivocal Feminists, cap. 5

Ver K. McClelland, 'Masculinidade e o "artesão representativo" na Grã-Bretanha, 1850-80', em M. Roper e J. Tosh (eds), Manful Assertions: Masculinities in Britain desde 1800, Londres, Routledge, 1991 K. McClelland, 'Rational and respectable men: gender, the working class, and cidadhip in Britain, 1850-67', em Frader and Rose (eds), Gender and Class in Modern Europe C. Hall, K. McClelland e J. Rendall, Defining the Victorian Nation: Class, Race, Gender and the Reform Act of 1867, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2000, cap. 2. Afirmações Manful: Masculinidades na Grã-Bretanha desde 1800

A. Baron (ed.), Work Engendered: Toward a New History of American Labor, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1991. Ver também MH Blewett, 'Masculinity and Mobility: the Dilemma of Lancashire Weavers and Spinnen in Final Century Fall River , Massachusetts ', em MC Carnes e C. Griffen (eds), Meanings for Manhood. Constructions of Masculinity in Victorian America, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1990. Work Engendered: Toward a New History of American Labor

Ver J. Weeks, Coming Out: Homosexual Politics in Britain, from the Nineteenth Century to the Present, Londres, Quartet, 1977 A. Sinfield, The Wilde Century: Effeminacy, Oscar Wilde and the Queer Movement, London, Cassell, 1994.

Labour Leader, 13 de abril de 1895.

Veja C. Tsuzuki, Tom Mann, 1856-1941. The Challenges of Labor, Oxford, Clarendon, 1991, pp. 102-8. Tom Mann, 1856-1941. Os desafios do trabalho 102 8

J. K. Hardie para J. Trevor, 23 de abril de 1995, Francis Johnson Correspondence, 1895/78 J. Saville e R. Storey, "John Trevor", Dictionary of Labor Biography, vol. 6, London, Macmillan, 1982.

H. Mitchell, The Hard Way Up, Londres, Virago, 1977, pp. 125-6 K. B. Glasier para M. MacDonald, 16 de outubro de 1910, Margaret MacDonald Correspondence, PRO 30/69/1377. O Caminho Mais Difícil até 125 6

Ver Hunt, Equivocal Feminists, pp. 94-104 para o caso Lanchester (1895) para o caso Belt (1899) ver K. Hunt, 'Quando o "privado" se torna público: fofoca, gênero e política socialista', artigo não publicado para Conferência da Federação Internacional para Pesquisa em História da Mulher sobre Mulheres, Família, Vida Privada e Sexualidade, Queen's University, Belfast, agosto de 2003.

Ibid., 18 de maio de 1895. Ver também D. Rubinstein, ‘Stewart Duckworth Headlam’, em Dictionary of Labor Biography, vol. 2, London, Macmillan, 1974.

Labour Leader, 8 de junho de 1895.

Citado em Weeks, Coming Out, p. 21

H. Cocks, 'Calamus in Bolton: spirituality and homosexual deseja in late Victorian England', Gender & History, 1,3, 2, 2001. 'Calamus in Bolton: spirituality and homossexual want in late Victorian England' Gender & History 1, 3 2

Labour Leader, 27 de abril de 1895.

Ver T. Lummis, 'A dimensão histórica da paternidade: um estudo de caso 1890-1914', em L. McKee e M. O'Brien (orgs), The Father Figure, Londres, Tavistock, 1982 L. Davidoff et al., A história da família. Blood, Contract and Intimacy 1830-1960, London, Longman, 1999, cap. 5. A Figura do Pai

T. A. Jackson, Solo Trumpet, London, Lawrence & Wishart, 1953, pp. 82-3. Trompete Solo 82 3

C. Benn, Keir Hardie, London, Hutchinson, 1992, p. 132. Keir Hardie 132

J. Bruce Glasier, James Keir Hardie. A Memorial, Manchester e Londres, National Labor Press, n.d. (1915). pp. 72-3. James Keir Hardie. A Memorial 72 3

Bruce Glasier, Hardie, p. 63

C. Nelson, Invisible Men. Fatherhood in Victorian Periodicals, 1850-1910 , Athens, Georgia, University of Georgia Press, 1995, p. 209 Tosh, A Man's Place, p. 79. Invisible Men. Fatherhood in Victorian Periodicals, 1850-1910 209

K. Cowman, ‘"Giving them something to do": how the early ILP appealed to women', in Walsh (ed.), Working Out Gender, p. 130.

J. Cox (ed.), A Singular Marriage. A Labour Love Story in Letters and Diaries. Ramsay and Margaret MacDonald , London, Harrap, 1988, p. 311. A Singular Marriage. A Labour Love Story in Letters and Diaries. Ramsay and Margaret MacDonald 311

Quoted in D. Marquand, Ramsay MacDonald , London, Richard Cohen Books, 1997, p. 131. Ramsay MacDonald 131

Cox (ed.), A Singular Marriage, p. 372. The emphasis is mine.

For example, see Barbara Castle's portrait of her ILPer father (Fighting All the Way, London, Macmillan, 1993, chaps 1 and 2)

S. Rowbotham, ‘Florence Exten-Hann — socialist and feminist', in her Dreams and Dilemmas , London, Virago, 1983, pp. 224-5. Dreams and Dilemmas 224 5

See Hunt, Equivocal Feminists, chap. 2

J. Weeks and S. Rowbotham, Socialism and the New Life , London, Pluto, 1977, p. 16. See also S. Yeo, ‘A new life: the religion of socialism in Britain, 1883-96', History Workshop, 4, 1977. Socialism and the New Life 16

For Carpenter, Merrill and housework, see Weeks and Rowbotham, New Life, pp. 85-6.


RAF CASPS

The aim of the annual RAF Air and Space Power publication is to explain and promote the role of the RAF to policy makers, industry partners, academics and interested stakeholders both at home and internationally. As well as highlighting vital partnerships with industry, each issue also focuses on the key procurement activities, taskings and operations that the RAF has recently undertaken and shines a light on technology trends within the air sector. Along with articles by expert defence journalists, the publication also includes articles by senior RAF officers, international air chiefs and industry leaders.

Air and Space Power Review

The Air and Space Power Review is published three times a year with Spring, Summer and Autumn/Winter editions. The publication aims to support the British armed forces in general and the Royal Air Force in particular by developing thinking about the application of air power. The intention is to provide a forum for high quality and academically credible articles on air and space power, with the objective of stimulating debate and promoting the evolution of air and space power thinking within the wider military and academic communities.

1998 & 1999 editions are not yet available electronically.

Chief of the Air Staff's Reading List

The MOD online library includes a selection of many of the titles featured in the Chief of the Air Staff&rsquos Reading Lists 2012-2018 which are available to all MoD personnel for free. Chief of the Air Staff's Reading Lists 2012-2019.

Royal Air Force Publications

Academic Papers

The views expressed in these papers are those of the authors and do not represent those of the Royal Air Force. Furthermore, such views should not be considered as constituting an official endorsement of factual accuracy, opinion, conclusion or recommendation of the Royal Air Force, or wider Ministry of Defence.

Air Power Policy / Strategy

Air Power Theory / Doctrine

Historic Case Studies

Geopolitics

Technology / Capability

Speeches

A transcript of the keynote speech as given by Chief of the Air Staff, Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Hillier KCB CBE DFC ADC MA RAF, to the Air and Space Power Conference 2019 is now available to download here.

A transcript of the keynote speech as given by Chief of Defence Staff, General Sir Nicholas Carter KCB CBE DSO ADC Gen, to the Air Power Conference 2018 is now available to download here.

A transcript of the keynote speech as given by Chief of the Air Staff, Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Hillier KCB CBE DFC ADC MA RAF, to the Air Power Conference 2018 is now available to download here.

&lsquoLord Trenchard: Inspiring The Next Generation Air Force&rsquo: The RUSI Lord Trenchard Memorial Lecture 2017 by Air Marshal Stuart Atha CB DSO MA BSc RAF, Deputy Commander Operations, Royal Air Force delivered at the Royal United Services Institute, London on 4 October 2017.

The Chief Of Staff, U.S. Air Force Keynote Speech to the RAF Air Power Conference 2017, given by Chief Of Staff, U.S. Air Force, General David Goldfein to the Air Power Conference 2017.

The Chief of the Air Staff's Keynote Speech to the RAF Air Power Conference 2017, given by Chief of the Air Staff, Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Hillier KCB CBE DFC ADC MA RAF to the Air Power Conference 2017.

The Annual Wilbur and Orville Wright Lecture 2016 by Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Hillier, Chief of the Air Staff delivered at the Royal Aeronautical Society on 6 December 2016.

&lsquoA 'New' and Exciting Royal Air Force Towards its 2nd Century&rsquo: The RUSI Lord Trenchard Memorial Lecture 2016 given by Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Hillier, Chief of the Air Staff at the Royal United Services Institute, London on 24 October 2016.

Chief of the Air Staff's Keynote Speech to RAF Air Power Conference 2016 given by Chief of the Air Staff, Air Chief Marshal Sir Andrew Pulford KCB CBE ADC, to RAF Air Power Conference 2016.

&lsquoBuilding the Best Force for the Next Century&rsquo: The Chief of the Air Staff's Speech to the Turkish Air Force International Symposium on Air Warfare, 2016, Istanbul, given by Chief of the Air Staff, Air Chief Marshal Sir Andrew Pulford KCB CBE ADC RAF.

&lsquoMaintaining Dominant Combat Power in Fiscal Austerity&rsquo: The Chief of the Air Staff's Speech to Hellenic Air Force's 4th Annual Conference, February 2016, given by Chief of the Air Staff, Air Chief Marshal Sir Andrew Pulford KCB CBE ADC RAF.

&lsquoThinking to Win&rsquo: The keynote address given by Air Chief Marshal Sir Andrew Pulford KCB CBE ADC RAF, Chief of the Air Staff, to Defence and Security Equipment International (DSEI) exhibition on 24 Sept 15.

'Two Decades at the Chuo Keiba': A presentation by Air Chief Marshal Sir Andrew Pulford KCB CBE ADC RAF, Chief of the Air Staff, Ministry of Defence, to the Air Commanders&rsquo Dialogue Japan on 23rd October 2014. Accompanying slide deck.

&lsquoContingency: Back to the Future&rsquo: The RUSI Lord Trenchard Memorial Lecture 2014 given by Air Chief Marshal Sir Andrew Pulford KCB CBE ADC RAF, Chief of the Air Staff, at the Royal United Services Institute, London on 18 September 2014.

Air Historical Branch Narratives

Other Publications

The Sir Sydney Camm Lecture 2015 - by Air Marshal Sir Baz North, AMP
Delivered at the Royal Aeronautical Society, London on 8 June, 2015. &lsquoAir Power and the Defence Aerospace Industry in the Whole Force Era&rsquo and Presentation Slides.


His Own Man

On February 2, 1940, Senator Harry S. Truman decided to run for reelection despite the possibility that his political career was nearing its end. He faced a tough primary against Lloyd C. Stark, the governor of Missouri who had just led a successful campaign to topple the Kansas City political machine that had supported Truman’s career.

In 1936, the machine, led by Tom Pendergast, stuffed so many ballot boxes for Democratic candidates that more votes were tallied than the entire registered population of Kansas City. Cheating at the polls, appointing allies to city jobs, and using city resources for illegal income was nothing short of routine for political bosses of the era, but Pendergast had so far evaded detection by anyone in a position to stop him. Governor Stark assisted the state election board in its investigation of the 1936 voter fraud. Stark then facilitated a federal investigation into Pendergast’s income tax records in 1938. In 1939, Pendergast was indicted for income tax evasion and went to prison for 15 months.

Truman’s longstanding connections to Pendergast immediately became a liability. In 1922 Pendergast helped Truman start his political career by supporting his candidacy for the Jackson County judgeship. In Jackson County, the county judges were responsible for management issues as much as for courtrooms. Truman accordingly managed county road development and the construction of a new county courthouse. He gained respect among Jackson County residents, but he had not seriously contemplated running for the Senate until asked to by Pendergast in 1934. With machine support in Kansas City and a carefully crafted campaign through the rest of Missouri, Truman won the 1934 election.

To virtually any political analyst, the fall of Pendergast meant the fall of Truman. Truman, a candidate long associated with Pendergast, would have to run against the man who exposed the machine’s corruption in the first place. Nonetheless, at the Hotel President in Kansas City, Truman stubbornly announced to several colleagues that he would run for reelection to the U.S. Senate. He toured the state and gave dozens of speeches explaining his background as a World War I veteran and a true representative of the people. In the end, voters decided that Truman had avoided involvement in the seedy elements of machine politics, and he won the improbable reelection in the fall.

Truman’s victory paved the way for President Franklin Roosevelt to name him the Democratic vice-presidential running mate in 1944. Accordingly, when Roosevelt died in 1945, Truman became president of the United States and oversaw the end of World War II, including his decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan. With a flagging economy and a resurgent Republican Party, though, Truman was again the underdog when running against Thomas Dewey for president in 1948. In an electoral comeback reminiscent of the 1940 Senate campaign, Truman won the 1948 election to serve a full term as president. Ironically, just eight years before that Truman sat in Kansas City contemplating the probable end of his political career.

Read biographical sketches of persons and places related to Harry Truman’s career, prepared by the Missouri Valley Special Collections, The Kansas City Public Library:

    , by Susan Jezak Ford , by Susan Jezak Ford associated with Tom Pendergast and Harry S. Truman, by Nancy J. Hulston

View images of Harry Truman that are a part of the Missouri Valley Special Collections:

Check out the following books about Harry Truman’s early career and Tom Pendergast:

  • Truman and Pendergast, by Robert H. Ferrell examines Pendergast’s role in Truman’s political career.
  • Truman: The Rise to Power, by Richard Lawrence Miller.
  • “The Election of Harry S Truman to the United States Senate,” by Philip A. Grant, Jr., in the Missouri Historical Society Bulletin, volume 36, January 1980, pp. 103-109.
  • “Kansas City Blacks, Harry Truman and the Pendergast Machine,” by Larry Grothaus, in the Missouri Historical Review, volume 69, October 1974, pp. 65-82.
  • The Bosses, by Alfred Steinberg includes a chapter on Tom Pendergast, among other bosses.

Visit the following museums with exhibits about Harry S. Truman:

    , 500 W. US Hwy. 24, Independence, MO 64050, (800) 833-1225 , 223 N. Main St., Independence, MO 64050, (816) 254-9929 , 12301 Blue Ridge Blvd., Grandview, MO 64030 , Jackson County Courthouse, (816) 252-7454 where President Truman wintered, 111 Front St., Key West, FL, (305) 294-9911

Continue researching Harry Truman and Tom Pendergast using archival material:

    , the Missouri Valley Special Collections , the Missouri Valley Special Collections , the Missouri Valley Special Collections , the Missouri Valley Special Collections , by John W. Keiter, the Missouri Valley Special Collections , the Missouri Valley Special Collections at the Harry S. Truman Library offers a more complete listing of archival resources

Referências:

Robert H. Ferrell, Truman and Pendergast (Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1999), 45-61, 80-105.


Reagan’s Contribution: Building Trust

So, back again to the basic query: What were Reagan’s unique contributions? Adelman stresses Reagan’s desire for real cuts in armaments. Shultz emphasizes negotiation. Baker underscores Reagan’s negotiating skills and dwells on his pragmatism.

But these laudatory comments understate Reagan’s unique gifts and his contributions to the end of the Cold War. To say that Reagan wanted to negotiate is far too facile. He fiercely wanted to talk to Soviet leaders from his first days in office.38 When Vice President Bush attended Konstantin Chernenko’s funeral in March 1985, he brought a set of talking points for his first meeting with Gorbachev. He was scripted to say:

I bring with me a message of peace. We know this is a time of difficulty we would like it to be a time of opportunity. . . . We know that some of the things we do and say sound threatening and hostile to you. The same is true for us.

The two governments needed to transcend that distrust. “We are ready to embark on that path with you. It is the path of negotiation.”39

To say that Reagan wanted to negotiate trivializes his approach. After Bush conversed with Gorbachev at Chernenko’s funeral, Secretary of State Shultz turned to the new Soviet leader and said,

President Reagan told me to look you squarely in the eyes and tell you: ‘Ronald Reagan believes that this is a very special moment in the history of mankind. You are starting your term as general secretary. Ronald Reagan is starting his second term as president. . . . President Reagan is ready to work with you.’40

That determination and anticipation infused Reagan’s first meeting with Gorbachev in Geneva in October 1985. Reading the opening pages of his autobiography, one can sense the president’s excitement: Having looked forward to this encounter with a Soviet leader for more than five years, his “juices” were flowing. “Lord,” he wrote in his diary, “I hope I’m ready.”41

He was ready. He felt that his policies had built up America’s military might and strengthened his negotiating position. He thought the Soviet Union was an economic basket case.42 But neither U.S. military strength nor Soviet economic weakness explain what ensued. They are part of the puzzle, important parts. Yet they were present at other times during the Cold War, and it had neither ended nor been won.

To say that Reagan wanted to negotiate is far too facile. He fiercely wanted to talk to Soviet leaders from his first days in office.

What was different now? It was not simply Reagan’s desire to negotiate. It was his sensibility, empathy, conviction, skill, charm, and self-confidence. Informed of the intricacies of the Single Integrated Operational Plan and the mechanics of decision-making in times of nuclear crisis, Reagan was appalled by the thought that he would have only six minutes to determine whether “to unleash Armageddon!” “How could anyone apply reason” in those circumstances, he mused.43 Perhaps that realization, along with the tutoring he was receiving about Soviet history and culture, explain his growing empathy for the adversary.44 “Three years had taught me something surprising about the Russians,” he wrote in his diary. “Many people at the top of the Soviet hierarchy were genuinely afraid of America and Americans. Perhaps this shouldn’t have surprised me, but it did.”45 He talked to foreign ambassadors about Soviet perceptions and recorded their views in his diary. Learning that the Soviets were insecure and genuinely frightened, he tried to insert this understanding in his handwritten letters to Chernenko before the Soviet leader died.46 Reagan told his national security advisers, “We need talks which can eliminate suspicions. I’m willing to admit that the USSR is suspicious of us.”47

This empathy subsequently infused his meetings with Gorbachev. Although Reagan wanted armaments to cast shadows and bolster his negotiating posture, he also grasped Soviet perceptions of SDI. “We do not want a first-strike capability,” he told his advisers, “but the Soviets probably will not believe us.” Intuiting that after the nuclear disaster at Chernobyl Gorbachev faced growing internal challenges, Reagan prodded his subordinates to reach an agreement that did not “make him [Gorbachev] look like he gave up everything.”48 Gorbachev, he stressed, mustn’t be forced “to eat crow” he must not be embarrassed. “Let there be no talk of winners and losers,” Reagan said. The aim was to establish a process, a series of meetings, “to avoid war in settling our differences in the future.”49

The deliberations of the National Security Council after 1985 do not reveal officials designing a strategy to win the Cold War, break up the Soviet Union, or eradicate communism. Instead, they reveal officials who were struggling to shape a negotiating strategy that would effectuate arms reductions. They reveal a president pushing hard for real arms cuts. They reveal a president who feared nuclear war, believed in SDI, and wanted to share it. They reveal a president who desired to abolish nuclear weapons.50 Reagan’s advisers felt that he was living in fantasyland, as Adelman said in his Miller Center interview.51 Occasionally, they politely interrupted: “Mr. President,” they would say, “there is a great risk in exchanging technical data.” Or, “Mr. President, that would be the most massive technical transfer the Western world has ever known.” But Reagan was not dissuaded: “There has to be an answer to all these questions because some day people are going to ask why we didn’t do something new about getting rid of nuclear weapons. You know,” he went on, “I’ve been reading my Bible and the description of Armageddon talks about destruction, I believe, of many cities and we need absolutely to avoid that. We have to do something now.”52

Reagan was not very good at getting his advisers to do things they bickered over or did not want to do. But Reagan was good, indeed superb, at dealing with people. He could set you “utterly at ease,” wrote his critic, David Stockman. Devoid of facts and short on knowledge, said Richard Pipes, Reagan nonetheless “had irresistible charm.” “Easy to like,” said Shultz Reagan “was a master of friendly diplomacy.”53

He worked hard at it, prepared for his talks, grasped the rhythm of negotiations, and understood the value of stubborn patience.54 Gorbachev sometimes sneered at him during Politburo meetings for his simplistic, narrow-minded, and repetitious talking points. But in their new book, Svetlana Savranskaya and Thomas Blanton show how deeply affected Gorbachev was by Reagan’s conviction to abolish nuclear weapons at Reykjavik. At the emotional end of their last conversation, Reagan pleaded with Gorbachev to allow SDI testing: “Do it as a favor to me so that we can go to the people as peacemakers.” Gorbachev said no, but was deeply affected. “I believe it was then, at that very moment,” wrote Chernyaev, that Gorbachev “became convinced that it would ‘work out’ between him and Reagan.”55

Reagan engaged Gorbachev in a way no American leader had previously engaged a Soviet leader in the history of the Cold War. Of course, he was dealing with a special, new type of Soviet leader. But it was to Reagan’s credit that he realized this. It took intuition and courage. Other than Shultz, hardly any of his advisers felt this way — not Weinberger, Clark, Casey, Carlucci, Baker, Bush, Gates, or outside critics such as Kissinger. Nor is it clear that his Democratic foes would have seized the opportunity as he did. Even had they tried, it is not likely that they could have orchestrated the same type of political support for engagement with the Soviet leader. Reagan’s reputation for ideological purity and toughness — even after the Iran-Contra scandal — afforded him flexibility that other U.S. politicians did not have. And his Soviet interlocutors knew it. Reagan had the trust of the American people, Gorbachev believed. If the president struck a deal, it would stick.56

Reagan provided the incentive for Gorbachev to forge ahead. Gorbachev needed a partner to tamp down the arms race and end the Cold War so that he could revive socialism inside the Soviet Union. Gorbachev wanted to cut military expenditures, accelerate the economy, and improve Soviet living conditions. 57 Propelled by his ideals and by his recognition of material realities, he gradually made all the key concessions.58 Reagan’s stubborn patience incentivized Gorbachev to sign the zero-zero Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty and to withdraw from Afghanistan. Reagan’s sincerity, affability, and goodwill encouraged Gorbachev to believe that the Soviet Union was not endangered by foreign adversaries but by superior economies.59 Reagan embodied a capitalist system that Gorbachev disdained but also democratic and humane values with which he did not disagree. By reconfiguring Soviet foreign policy, championing conventional as well as strategic reductions in arms, and retrenching from regional conflicts, Gorbachev hoped to find the time and space to integrate the Soviet Union into a new world order and a common European home that would comport with Soviet economic needs and security imperatives.

Gorbachev sensed that Reagan was seeking not to win the Cold War but to end it. He recognized that Reagan wanted arms cuts, believed in nuclear abolition, and sincerely championed human rights and religious freedom. He also understood that Reagan and his advisers wanted to exploit Soviet vulnerabilities and weaknesses to enhance America’s posture in international affairs. But Gorbachev did not think that these matters endangered Soviet power and security. He also believed that the president’s predilections coincided with his own. Gorbachev, said Chernyaev, felt “that Reagan was someone who was concerned about very human things, about the human needs of his people. He felt that Reagan behaved as a very moral person.”60

Gorbachev sensed that Reagan was seeking not to win the Cold War but to end it.

Gorbachev was right. Reagan’s rhetoric, actions, and behavior during his last years in office reveal what he most wanted to do: establish a process to negotiate arms cuts, reduce tensions, champion human rights, and promote stability and peace. He and his advisers were not discussing ways to win the Cold War or to break up the Soviet Union. At meetings, they occasionally expressed confidence that they had the Soviets on the run, but far more often they remonstrated about the constraints Congress imposed on defense spending and acknowledged that Soviet economic problems, as bad as they were, were not likely to cause a Soviet collapse or even a rebalancing of military power. Their discussions implied an understanding that, at best, they might reduce tensions mitigate chances of nuclear conflict manipulate the Soviets into restructuring their forces and prompt a contraction of Soviet meddling in Central America, southern Africa, and parts of Asia. Nonetheless, Reagan not only encouraged his advisers to integrate strategic defense and the elimination of ballistic missiles into their overall planning, he also hectored them to move forward to prepare a strategic arms-reduction treaty that he could sign. He still distrusted the Soviets and wanted to negotiate from strength. And he still prodded Gorbachev to advance human rights and religious freedom. But during his last years in office Reagan and his closest advisers rarely discussed victory in the Cold War.61 Postulating a continuing Cold War, intelligence analysts estimated that Gorbachev wanted “to use economic reconstruction at home as a basis to project Soviet power and influence throughout the world.”62 Nobody in the U.S. government in January 1989, wrote Robert Gates, then deputy director of the CIA, was predicting free elections in Eastern Europe, or the unification of Germany inside NATO, or the dissolution of the Soviet Union.63


Review: Volume 2 - Military History - History

Bridge on the River Kwai

Train crossing the wooden bridge which spanned the Mae Klong River (renamed Kwai Yai River in 1960).

This eleven span bridge had been dismantled by the Japanese and brought to Tamarkan from Java in 1942. Both bridges wee subjected to numerous attacks by Allied aircraft during the period December 1944 to June 1945. One span of the steel bridge was destroyed in a raid mid February 1945. Two more spans were dropped during raids between April and June 1945. (cont'd below)

Aerial photograph of the Bridge over the River Kwai, Thailand, severely damaged by aerial bombing.

Cont'd. Tamarkan POW camp was located adjacent to both the bridges and a nearby Japanese anti-aircraft battery. It also suffered during these air raids, the worst being on 29 November 1944. During this attack on the Ack Ack battery, three bombs overcarried and demolished the top ends of POW huts 1 and 2, burying a number of the occupants.

The POW casualties numbered nineteen killed and sixty eight wounded. During a four hour attack on the bridges and Ack Ack battery on 5 February 1945, a further fifteen POWs were injured. The camp site was littered with great fragments of shrapnel, and one hut and the canteen were burnt to the ground. On 14 February 1945, the Japanese evacuated the remaining POWs to the Chungkai camp which was located approximately two kilometres north on Kanchanaburi, on the bank of the River Kwai Noi.

The Wampo tiered viaduct built along the edge of the Kwai Noi River.

1. During the Second World War the Japanese Army constructed a military railway line branching off the southern line at Nong Pladuk (also known as Non Pladuk) Station, Km.64+196.

This line crossed over the River Kwae Yai at Kanchanaburi, traversed along the bank of Kwae Noi River, cut across the Thai-Burma border at Chedi Sam Ong, continued on into Burma and joined the Burma railway line at Thanbyuzayat. The total length of line constructed was 419 kms., being in Thailand 303.95 kms. and in Burma 111.05 kms.

2. Construction work started in October 1942. A year later on 23 October 1943 rail laying was completed. About 60,000 men consisting of Indian, Burmese, Malaysian, Indonesian, Chinese and Thai labourers as well as prisoners of war took part in the construction work.

3. The diesel power traction car shown here was used during the construction. It could be run either on road or railway track. The road wheels would be lowered into position when required. The steam locomotive shown was employed for military transport service on this line.

Wampo is approximately 114 kilometres north of Nong Pladuk, or 300 kilometres south of Thanbyuzayat.

A diesel rail car passing over the long trestle bridge commonly known as the Wampo viaduct.

4. In speeding up construction work the Japanese Army built a temporary railway bridge across the River Kwae Yai downstream close to the existing bridge. After completion of the existing bridge composing of 11 steel spans with the rest of timber spans, the temporary bridge was dismantled to ease off river traffic inconvenience. Three steel spans nos. 4, 5, 6 were damaged by allied bombing during the war period. After taking over the line the State Railway of Thailand replaced the three damaged spans with two steel spans and changed all timber spans at the far end with six steel spans.

5. When the war come [sic] to an end in 1945 the British Army dismantled 3.95 kms. of track at the Thai-Burma border. The remaining length of 300 kms. was handed over to the State Railway of Thailand in 1947. With due and careful consideration in regard to transport economic as well as other aspects, the State Railway of Thailand was authorised to dismantle the track from the end of the line to Nam Tok Station and to upgrade the remaining length of 130.204 kms. to Nong Pladuk Station conforming to operational permanent way standard. Subsequently, the section between Nong Pladuk and Kanchanaburi Stations was officially opened to traffic on 24 June 1949, between Kanchanaburi and Wang Pho Stations on 1 April 1952 and the last section from Wang Pho to Nam Tok Stations on 1 July 1958.

Allied prisoners of war (POWs) engaged in bridge building at Tamarkan, fifty five kilometres north of Nong Pladuk (also known as Non Pladuk) and five kilometres south of Kanchanaburi (Kanburi).

A view of Tamarkan prisoner of war (POW) camp showing rows of huts with thatched attap roofs and open walls.

Approximately two kilometres north of Kanchanaburi (Kanburi) on the bank of the Kwai Noi river.

Temporary wooden crosses on the graves of Allied soldiers (prisoners of war (POWs)) in the Chungkai cemetery.


Reviewer: Alberto Egon Schaeffer-Filho

Software-defined networking (SDN) is arguably the single most important development in the networking field in the past few years. SDN decouples how packets are forwarded between routers/switches (data plane) from how packets must be handled (control plane). Feamster et al. present a history lesson on how different technologies and paradigms played a role in shaping what is now called SDN. A chronological overview of past efforts in the area of programmable networking is depicted from early research on active networks, through control-data separation, and finally on to the more recent OpenFlow and network operating system efforts. Furthermore, the authors discuss what has driven the interest from academia and industry through the years: initially, it was the search for more pragmatism, and later it was the need to generalize previous solutions. Even experienced researchers and practitioners will appreciate the chronological relationships highlighted by the authors. Not surprisingly, many concerns faced earlier by more primitive solutions surfaced later in the SDN domain, including the need for distributed state management. The reliance on existing protocols and application programming interfaces (APIs) significantly limited what could be done in the early 2000s, but the authors emphasize that present-day SDN and OpenFlow as its primary realization build on similar principles for supporting a more general manner of network programming. If one thing is missing in this paper, however, it is a discussion on abstractions for expressing network programmability and for the specification of management functions. This would have included early work on policy-based network management (PBNM), the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) script management information base (MIB), and more recent efforts along the lines of Pyretic. Online Computing Reviews Service

Access critical reviews of Computing literature here


Assista o vídeo: EX MACHINA - Tom 2 - Recenzja