Myles Standish

Myles Standish

Myles Standish (l. 1584-1656 dC) foi o conselheiro militar da Colônia de Plymouth que viajou com os colonos (mais tarde conhecidos como peregrinos) a bordo do Mayflower em 1620 CE. Os colonos eram formados por membros de uma congregação religiosa separatista, que se autodenominavam santos, e outros, não de sua religião, a quem chamavam de Estranhos. Standish estava entre os Estranhos, embora fosse conhecido pela congregação de Leiden e pareça ter simpatizado com a visão deles; embora não haja evidências de que ele tenha sido um membro do grupo.

Ele provavelmente nasceu em Lancashire, Inglaterra, em uma família abastada, mas foi deserdado, juntando-se ao exército. Ele serviu na Holanda durante a Guerra dos Oitenta Anos (1568-1648 dC) como tenente no exército inglês (ou talvez um mercenário), lutando pelos holandeses contra a Espanha, e foi promovido a capitão. Por volta de 1620 EC, ele foi contratado pela congregação de Leiden como conselheiro militar para sua expedição ao Novo Mundo depois que eles se aproximaram e rejeitaram o Capitão John Smith (l. 1580-1631 EC), famoso por Jamestown.

Depois de chegar a Massachusetts, Standish foi um dos signatários do Mayflower Compact, liderou ou participou de explorações da região para encontrar um local adequado para a colônia, foi um dos poucos a sobreviver ao primeiro inverno e foi eleito comandante da milícia da Colônia de Plymouth em fevereiro de 1621 DC, cargo que ocuparia para o resto de sua vida. Ele estava entre os primeiros colonos - provavelmente o fundador - de Duxbury, Massachusetts, onde estabeleceu uma fazenda onde viveu com sua família e seu amigo nativo americano Hobbamock (falecido em 1643 DC), seu camarada de armas.

Ele está entre os membros mais célebres da Colônia de Plymouth, não apenas pelos relatos de suas atividades registradas por William Bradford (l. 1590-16567 dC) e Edward Winslow (l. 1595-1655 dC), os primeiros cronistas do peregrinos, mas através da ficção histórica O namoro de Miles Standish (1858 CE) pelo poeta americano Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (l. 1807-1882 CE), que estabeleceu a história dos colonos peregrinos na consciência dos Estados Unidos no século 19 CE. Desde então, Standish continuou a ser celebrado em estátuas, monumentos e nomes de lugares nos Estados Unidos e na Inglaterra, e sua popularidade não diminuiu.

A Congregação Leiden

Pouco se sabe sobre a vida de Standish antes de 1620 CE. Todos os relatos modernos sobre seu local de nascimento e serviço militar são baseados em poucas evidências e especulações. Seu suposto local de nascimento, Lancashire, na Inglaterra, é baseado em seu testamento, assim como a alegação de que ele era um membro da família Standish de Duxbury Hall (embora isso pareça provável). Sua posição e papel no exército inglês durante a Guerra dos Oitenta Anos são igualmente incertos, com alguns estudiosos afirmando que ele era um mercenário e outros um soldado de infantaria que subiu na hierarquia até ser capitão. Ele é conhecido por ter servido na Holanda entre 1603-1620 CE, e está claro que ele era conhecido como Capitão Myles Standish antes de 1620 CE.

Não há indicação de que ele tenha sido membro da congregação de Leiden, mas parece que ele tinha relações amigáveis ​​com os separatistas antes de 1620 EC.

O relacionamento de Standish com a congregação de Leiden, na Holanda, é igualmente obscuro. Não há nenhuma indicação de que ele já foi um membro, mas ele parece ter mantido relações amigáveis ​​com os separatistas antes de 1620 EC. É provável que ele fosse um simpatizante separatista, com base em suas ações posteriores, mas isso é especulativo. É tão possível que ele se juntou ao Mayflower expedição pela mesma razão que muitos dos outros Estranhos fizeram: na esperança de melhorar suas fortunas no Novo Mundo como eles tinham visto outros fazerem na colônia de Jamestown, fundada na Virgínia em 1607 CE.

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A congregação de Leiden era um grupo de separatistas ingleses, liderados por seu pastor John Robinson (l. 1576-1625 EC) que havia deixado suas casas em Scrooby, Inglaterra, para a Holanda em 1607 EC, fugindo da perseguição do rei Jaime I da Inglaterra ( r. 1603-1625 CE). James I era o chefe da Igreja Anglicana que, embora protestante, ainda mantinha aspectos do catolicismo aos quais os separatistas se opunham. Em 1607 EC, a congregação de Scrooby foi descoberta por oficiais anglicanos e perseguida como outras pessoas, e então se mudou para Leiden, onde, com o tempo, encontraram Standish. Em 1618 EC, um de seus membros mais proeminentes, William Brewster (l. 1568-1644 EC), publicou um tratado criticando a Igreja Anglicana, e ordens foram emitidas para sua prisão.

Os separatistas, já tentando organizar uma expedição ao Novo Mundo, intensificaram seus esforços, enviando dois de seus membros - Robert Cushman (l. 1577-1625 dC) e John Carver (l. 1584-1621 dC) - de volta à Inglaterra para negociar com o comerciante aventureiro Thomas Weston (l. 1584 - c. 1647 DC) para passagem. Weston, um banqueiro que combinou colonos em potencial com investidores, alugou-lhes um navio de carga, o Mayflower, enquanto um amigo (ou possivelmente membro), Capitão Bloom, comprou para eles um navio de passageiros, o Speedwell, para sua jornada.

Rejeição de Smith & Voyage

Na preparação para a viagem, a congregação comprou os mapas e as obras do capitão John Smith, que havia sido um dos fundadores originais de Jamestown e era considerado um dos homens mais experientes da Inglaterra na América do Norte naquela época. Os separatistas abordaram Smith como seu guia e conselheiro militar, mas decidiram contra ele, alegando que ele poderia dominar o grupo e era muito caro.

Tendo rejeitado Smith, eles perguntaram a Standish e ele aceitou. Em julho de 1620 CE, Standish e sua esposa Rose embarcaram no Speedwell em Delfthaven, Holanda, e navegou para Southampton com os outros passageiros, onde se encontraram com o Mayflower. Weston, enquanto isso, contratou alguns e convidou outros - não afiliados aos separatistas - para ajudá-los a estabelecer uma colônia lucrativa no Novo Mundo (os chamados Estranhos). Embora os separatistas se opusessem a essa estipulação, eles não tinham escolha a não ser aceitar os recém-chegados.

Os dois navios deixaram Southampton juntos, mas o Speedwell vazou continuamente e, após uma série de atrasos para reparos, teve que ser abandonado. Alguns dos Speedwellpassageiros, incluindo Standish e sua esposa, agora lotados a bordo do Mayflower e finalmente partiu em 6 de setembro de 1620 dC para a travessia transatlântica, que levou pouco mais de dois meses.

Papel inicial no Novo Mundo

Ao avistar a terra, em 9 de novembro de 1620 CE, Christopher Jones, Capitão do Mayflower (l. 1570-1622 CE), percebeu que eles não estavam nem perto de onde deveriam estar. Eles deveriam ter pousado acima de Jamestown, na Virgínia, mas, em vez disso, estavam na costa da Nova Inglaterra. Depois de tentar e falhar em seguir a costa sul, foi decidido que eles teriam que se estabelecer onde estavam. Vários dos Estranhos, reconhecendo que a lei inglesa não era válida nesta região e que a patente que haviam recebido não tinha peso, argumentaram que agora seria cada um por si, uma alegação que os separatistas reconheceram que minaria seriamente suas chances de sobrevivência.

o Mayflower Compact foi elaborado, em resposta a esta ameaça, para estabelecer um governo e leis para o assentamento - que Standish e 40 outros homens assinaram em acordo em 11 de novembro de 1620 CE - e somente depois disso e da eleição de John Carver como o primeiro governador foram expedições lançadas para encontrar um lugar para a nova colônia. Standish, como seu consultor militar, liderou ou participou de tudo isso.

Entre meados de novembro e 21 de dezembro, Standish organizou e liderou missões exploratórias em torno do atual Cape Cod e na costa de Massachusetts, participando do chamado Primeiro Encontro com Nativos Americanos quando seu grupo foi atacado pela tribo Nauset no início de dezembro . Os mapas de Smith, se os tivessem, parecem ter sido ignorados, uma vez que ele indicou claramente em seu trabalho que a localização ideal era a atual Boston, que não só tinha um porto profundo para acomodar grandes navios para o comércio, mas também rios e lagos de água doce.

Em vez disso, Standish e os outros escolheram o local de Plymouth e começaram a construir o assentamento lá no final de dezembro de 1620 CE. Entre dezembro de 1620 CE e março de 1621 CE, mais da metade dos passageiros e da tripulação morreria de exposição, escorbuto, desnutrição e outras doenças. De acordo com Bradford, em determinado momento, apenas sete pessoas permaneceram saudáveis ​​e se dedicaram a cuidar dos outros. Standish estava entre as sete notas de Bradford:

Myles Standish, seu capitão e comandante militar, a quem eu e muitos outros devíamos muito em nossa condição baixa e doente [foi apoiado pelo Senhor de modo que] não estava de todo infectado com a doença. (Livro II. Cap. 1)

Entre os muitos que morreram no primeiro inverno estava a esposa de Standish, Rose, e mesmo assim ele continuou a cuidar dos doentes. Na primavera, os sobreviventes continuaram a construir o novo assentamento, mas ainda não tinham ideia clara de como iriam sobreviver até que foram recebidos pelo nativo americano Samoset (também conhecido como Somerset, l. 1590-1653 CE), que os apresentou a outro nativo americano que falava inglês fluentemente, tisquantum (mais conhecido como Squanto, l. 1585-1622 dC), que os ensinaria a plantar, pescar e caçar, além de apresentá-los ao chefe da Confederação Wampanoag, Ousamequin ( mais conhecido por seu título Massasoit, l. 1581-1661 dC), que se tornaria seu amigo e aliado. John Carver e Edward Winslow firmaram um tratado mutuamente benéfico com ele antes da morte de Carver em abril de 1621 EC, que foi homenageado posteriormente por Bradford, o segundo governador da colônia.

Relações Nativas Americanas

Massasoit era membro da tribo Pokanoket, que anteriormente havia assumido o controle de outros na região para formar sua confederação. Essas outras tribos regularmente prestavam homenagem a ele, e o guerreiro encarregado de coletar isso era Hobbamock, que se tornaria amigo de Myles Standish para toda a vida. No verão de 1621 CE, Hobbamock informou à colônia que Squanto e Massasoit foram sequestrados por Corbitant, chefe da tribo Narragansett, e Standish mobilizou uma força para resgatá-los, guiados por Hobbamock. Squanto e Massasoit escaparam antes que o grupo de Standish chegasse à aldeia, mas sua ação decisiva provou aos nativos americanos que a colônia de Plymouth honraria totalmente o tratado que haviam assinado com Massasoit. Posteriormente, várias tribos vieram prestar homenagem a Bradford e oferecer sua própria lealdade.

No outono de 1621 EC, Massasoit e 90 de seus guerreiros juntaram-se aos colonos na festa da colheita que desde então passou a ser conhecida como o primeiro Dia de Ação de Graças, Hobbamock e Squanto entre eles. O bom relacionamento entre os colonos e os nativos continuaria até a chegada, em maio de 1622 dC, de mais colonos da Inglaterra enviados por Weston para estabelecer uma nova colônia, já que, até então, ele havia se decepcionado com os lucros do grupo de Bradford.

Esses novos colonos eram todos homens, mal equipados e abastecidos, enviados em uma missão apenas para obter um lucro rápido, sem habilidades que os teriam ajudado a ter sucesso. Eles se estabeleceram ao norte de Plymouth em uma colônia chamada Wessagussett, consumiram rapidamente os suprimentos que Bradford havia lhes dado e começaram a roubar comida dos nativos americanos. A colônia degenerou ainda mais, piorando as relações com os nativos, até que chegou a Plymouth a notícia de que um ataque estava planejado em Wessagusset e, para evitar represálias depois, Plymouth também foi o alvo.

Pouco antes disso, Standish liderou uma expedição comercial à aldeia do chefe nativo Canacum em Manomet e estava no meio de negociações, com Hobbamock e Squanto ao seu lado, quando dois guerreiros da tribo de Massachusetts chegaram. Um desses homens, Wituwamat, exibiu duas facas que usou para matar colonos europeus enquanto falava com Canacum, e o chefe então ignorou Standish e entreteve Wituwamat de maneira mais pródiga. Standish era conhecido por seu temperamento explosivo e saiu da reunião com raiva, sentindo que tinha sido insultado propositalmente por Wituwamat.

Quando chegou a notícia do ataque iminente a Wessagussett, Bradford concordou com Standish que um ataque preventivo era do interesse deles.

Quando chegou a notícia em Plymouth do ataque iminente a Wessagussett, Bradford concordou com Standish que um ataque preventivo era do interesse deles, e Standish foi enviado para lidar com isso. No final das contas, o ataque foi apenas um boato e, quando o grupo chegou a Wessagussett, não havia evidência de qualquer problema. Mesmo assim, Standish continuou sua missão, convidando Wituwamat e outros para uma das casas do assentamento, ostensivamente para discutir o comércio, onde os matou, cortando a cabeça de Wituwamat e trazendo-a de volta para Plymouth, onde foi içada em um mastro do paliçada.

Embora Bradford tenha aprovado a missão e entendido por que Standish agiu daquela maneira, ele lamentou o dano que causou ao relacionamento deles com os nativos que, por um tempo, interromperam todo o comércio com os colonos. De acordo com o estudioso Nathaniel Philbrick, Standish executou a missão como se Wituwamat representasse uma ameaça real para vingar o insulto recebido anteriormente. Massasoit aprovou a ação, no entanto, encorajando outros nativos a retomar o comércio e Hobbamock também apoiou a decisão de Standish que, devido à sua alta posição como braço direito de Massasoit, tinha um peso considerável.

Namoro e outras missões

O comércio foi retomado com os nativos americanos e Hobbamock veio morar com Standish na colônia. Em 1623 CE, o navio Anne trouxe mais colonos para Plymouth, e entre eles estava uma mulher chamada Barbara, que se tornou a segunda esposa de Standish em 1624 EC. Ao contrário do poema popular O namoro de Miles Standish por Longfellow, não há evidência de que Standish tenha perseguido Priscilla Mullins (l. 1602-1685 EC) como futura esposa, nem que John Alden (l. 1598-1687 EC) tenha agido como um casamenteiro entre eles. O poema de Longfellow foi tão bem-sucedido, entretanto, que muitas vezes foi repetido sem crítica como tendo alguma base em fatos. John Alden e Priscilla Mullins se casariam, entretanto, (como no poema) e sua filha Sarah se casaria com o filho de Standish, Alexander em 1660 EC e teria oito filhos, os ancestrais dos atuais descendentes de Standish.

Em 1625 CE, ele foi enviado à Inglaterra para negociar novos termos com Weston e a Virginia Company para pagar a dívida que os colonos ainda deviam para a expedição de 1620 CE. Standish, devido ao seu temperamento explosivo, falhou nas negociações e voltou para Plymouth em 1626 EC. Um dos membros da congregação, Isaac Allerton (l. 1586-1659 EC), foi então enviado para a Inglaterra e teve sucesso onde Standish falhou. As negociações de Allerton permitiram que Bradford distribuísse terras além de Plymouth aos colonos em 1627 CE, e Standish recebeu uma generosa concessão em Duxbury, onde construiu uma casa e para a qual se aposentou em 1635 CE, permanecendo como consultor militar da colônia apenas como consultor.

Uma de suas ações militares mais polêmicas foi o ataque de 1628 CE à colônia vizinha de Merrymount, fundada pelo advogado de mente liberal Thomas Morton (l. 1579-1647 CE) que acreditava na assimilação da população nativa, desmilitarização dos esforços coloniais e que encorajou celebrações conjuntas e coabitação entre colonos e nativos, que os separatistas puritanos denunciaram como satânicas. Standish tomou a aldeia e prendeu Morton, aprisionando-o em uma ilha ao largo da costa para morrer de fome; ele mais tarde foi resgatado por nativos leais a ele e fugiu de volta para a Inglaterra.

Conclusão

Em seus últimos anos, Standish também serviu como tesoureiro da colônia e supervisionou o estabelecimento de estradas e divisões de terras. Hobbamock e sua família mudaram-se com Standish para a fazenda e os dois permaneceram amigos íntimos até a morte de Hobbamock de doença transmitida pela Europa c. 1643; Standish enterrou seu amigo em sua fazenda. Seu relacionamento com Hobbamock é frequentemente citado como exemplificando o respeito de Standish e as boas relações com a comunidade nativa americana mais ampla e isso parece ser apoiado pelas fontes primárias. Qualquer engajamento que Standish empreendeu contra os nativos foi perseguido no interesse de evitar mais violência em uma escala maior, e na invasão para resgatar Squanto e Massasoit, Standish insistiu que os nativos acidentalmente feridos na invasão fossem trazidos para Plymouth e cuidados.

A amizade de Standish com Hobbamock, a defesa do assentamento e as idiossincrasias pessoais tornaram-no uma figura especialmente interessante para escritores e pensadores posteriores dos Estados Unidos, especialmente depois do poema de Longfellow, e numerosas histórias e lendas cresceram ao seu redor, como a que diz respeito sua famosa espada, que foi desembainhada apenas para fazer o bem e buscar a justiça. Um artigo de 1921 CE no Virginia Chronicle afirma que a espada foi carregada nas Cruzadas e traz uma inscrição sobre seu papel na luta contra o mal.

A descrição da espada não corresponde ao Standish Rapier atualmente em exibição no Pilgrim Hall Museum em Plymouth nos dias de hoje, mas isso não é surpreendente, já que as histórias da espada de Standish - como seu namoro de Mullins - regularmente faziam seu caminho em "biografias ”De Standish popular no século 19 e início do século 20 dC. Até os dias de hoje, Standish continua a capturar a imaginação das pessoas, não apenas nos Estados Unidos, mas em todo o mundo, como um modelo do nobre guerreiro e honrado defensor da justiça que foi fiel a sua promessa de proteger a colônia em todo o seu vida.

Ele morreu em sua fazenda, provavelmente de câncer, em 3 de outubro de 1656 CE e foi enterrado no cemitério próximo (atual Myles Standish Burial Ground) sob um marco de pedra. Em 1891 CE, seus restos mortais foram desenterrados e reenterrados em um cofre no local do túmulo no qual um monumento a ele foi erguido; desde então, ele continuou a ser homenageado por meio de monumentos, livros e filmes como uma das figuras mais duradouras de Plymouth.


Myles Standish - História

PILGRIM PAI CAPTAIN MYLES STANDISH DE DUXBURY LANCASHIRE E MASSACHUSETTS

SUA ANCESTRIA E TERRAS PERDIDAS EM LANCASHIRE

A maioria dos mistérios de Myles resolvidos
O capitão Myles Standish, o filho americano mais famoso de Lancashire, entrou para a história documentada quando subiu a bordo do Mayflower em 1620 para servir como governador militar de Plymouth, Massachusetts, o novo assentamento que forneceu muitos dos princípios religiosos e políticos dos futuros EUA. ocupou muitos cargos oficiais, incluindo governador assistente de Plymouth e comandante-chefe de todas as empresas da Nova Inglaterra até sua morte em 1656. Suas façanhas heróicas foram relatadas em vários escritos contemporâneos, e muitos detalhes familiares foram documentados nos registros da colônia de Plymouth. Em grande parte como resultado do poema de Longfellow de 1858,

O namoro de Myles Standish

ele se juntou à panóplia dos primeiros heróis americanos e é comemorado pelo segundo maior monumento dos EUA a um indivíduo (superado apenas pelo de George Washington), uma estátua de 14 pés no topo de 110 pés (116 ? - uma discrepância em vários contas) na coluna Captain s Hill em Duxbury, Massachusetts.

Seu nome é uma palavra familiar na Nova Inglaterra, mas ele mal é conhecido em Lancashire fora da área de Chorley (Duxbury) e Wigan (Standish), e menos ainda no resto da Velha Inglaterra.

Ele é comemorado localmente apenas por dois memoriais discretos em St Wilfrid s, Standish (uma figura de vitral moderno em uma multidão e algumas citações emolduradas na sacristia), e por uma bandeira americana sobre o banco de Standish em St Laurence s, Chorley, doado por soldados americanos estacionados nas proximidades durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial.

Ele é comemorado nacionalmente apenas pela inclusão de seu nome em uma placa no porto de Plymouth, que registra a partida do Mayflower em 6 de setembro de 1620.

De acordo com a velha e persistente tradição da Nova Inglaterra, Duxbury foi nomeado após Duxbury Hall, casa ancestral de Myles perto de Chorley, Lancashire, em homenagem a ele. Esta tradição, juntamente com os detalhes na Cláusula 9 de seu Testamento (dado abaixo), levou a muitas tentativas de descobrir a identidade de seu bisavô Standish de Standish e a natureza de sua estreita ligação com Standish de Duxbury. Três tentativas em particular produziram resultados notáveis. A primeira foi em 1846, quando os descendentes americanos de Myles noivaram com I.W.R. Bromley, esq. para pesquisar os registros paroquiais de Chorley e da Ilha de Man para seu batismo e seu casamento com sua primeira esposa, Rose (História de Duxbury, Justin Winsor, 1849), com o objetivo de reivindicar Duxbury Hall após a linhagem masculina ter morrido em 1812 e novamente em 1840.

Esta tentativa foi malsucedida em encontrar quaisquer detalhes relevantes, mas espetacularmente bem-sucedida em se tornar uma causa-c l bre, azedando as relações britânico-americanas, gerando um conto de capa e espada de Charles Dickens e plantando as sementes de uma conexão com a Ilha Manx, que cinquenta anos mais tarde viria a desabrochar em "antigas tradições Manx". Apesar dessa falha, seus descendentes continuaram a acreditar fervorosamente em suas tradições queridas até a próxima busca notável.

Isso foi pelo Rev. T. C. Porteus, que em 1912 descobriu o resumo de uma escritura nomeando os mesmos seis distritos de Myles Will, de propriedade da viúva Margaret Standish de Ormskirk.

Ele descobriu c.30 mais resumos relativos a esta família em várias coleções de manuscritos, e concluiu que Myles devia ser descendente desta família Standish de Ormskirk e da Ilha de Man, com Huan da IOM como o bisavô do Testamento, o descendente de um filho mais novo indeterminado de Standish de Standish muitas gerações antes. (Veja algumas investigações recentes sobre os ancestrais do capitão Myles Standish, NEHGR, Vol. 68, Boston, 1914 Capitão Myles Standish: suas terras perdidas e conexões de Lancashire, A New Investigation, Manchester Univ. P, 1920.)

Essa nova versão de sua ancestralidade, totalmente divorciada de Duxbury, foi surpreendentemente aceita por muitos descendentes, que abandonaram as antigas tradições familiares. A teoria está errada. Muitos documentos originais no Hesketh de Rufford Muniments (particularmente DDHe 59/52, 58, 61, 69 26/124, 60/48) provam que as terras pertencentes a esta família não poderiam ser aquelas reivindicadas por Myles em seu testamento. Alguns foram herdados por Robert Hesketh, um alto xerife, quando ele se casou e sobreviveu à viúva do homem que comprou as terras de Standish, e em 1609 ele comprou todo o resto.

The Standish Monument, Duxbury, Massachusetts

Os feitos foram testemunhados por vários dignitários locais, a maioria deles intimamente relacionados com Standish s, e Myles devia saber tudo sobre as vendas. A "notável coincidência" do surgimento de terras de duas famílias 16.c. Standish nos mesmos lugares acabou sendo a consequência quase inevitável, mais cedo ou mais tarde, do re-amálgama dos remanescentes das heranças 122.c dos filhos de Warine de Busli, Barão de Penwortham, uma de cujas netas recebeu o feudo de Standish (e outras terras) em seu casamento com Radulphus, que fundou a linha.

GV C Young (Myles Standish, First Manx American, Manx-Svenska, 1984) aceitou a ancestralidade de Porteus e teorias anteriores de Myles sendo de Ellanbane, e argumentou que ele deve ter nascido lá em c.1584, o irmão mais velho de William Jr ., b. 1586. A teoria é falha. Um documento Manx de 1604 (Liber. Vast., Notas de Kissack. 8, 22) nomeando William como o proprietário das terras intack, esquecido ou ignorado por Young, prova em última análise que o indescritível irmão mais velho era John (falecido em meados de 1607), deixando nenhum espaço nesta família para Myles. Aliás, o primeiro filho de Myles foi Charles, não John, como Young afirma. (Detalhes da prova serão apresentados na Parte 5).

Qualquer pessoa que deseje ler um resumo das teorias acima e uma resposta quase imediata e altamente crítica à teoria de Young e uma conexão Manx em geral deve visitar o site da Ilha de Man, Myles Standish era um Manxman? Rev. R . Kissack, 1986 / 7 - Huan de Ormskirk deveria ser Hugh . Sua conclusão foi "não provada, dificilmente provável, mas concebivelmente possível", em outro lugar "nunca houve um Manx Myles".)

A Isle of Man no final da lista de Myles era quase certamente aquela em Croston, Lancashire, de propriedade conjunta de Standish em 13.c e 14th.c (ver DP397 / 13/1).

Os únicos fatos conhecidos sobre sua ascendência imediata e juventude vieram inteiramente de fontes da Nova Inglaterra do século 17:

O CANTO PEDRA DO MEMORIAL ESSENCIAL, EM COMEMORAÇÃO DA PERSONAGEM E DOS SERVIÇOS - de--
O CAPITÃO MYLES É O PRIMEIRO OFICIAL MILITAR COMISIONADO DA NOVA INGLATERRA.
Colocado no cume da Hi1I do Capitão, em Duxbury, sob a Superintendência da ANTIGA E HONORÁVEL ARTILHARIA COMPANHIA DE MASSACHUSETTS.
Na presença da ASSOCIAÇÃO DO STANDISH MONUMENT DO M.W. GRAND LODGE DE GRATUITOS MAÇONS DE MASSACHUSETTS

M.W. SERENO D. NICKERSON, GRÃO MESTRE,
NO SÉTIMO DIA DE OUTUBRO, A. D. 1872.
Sendo o ano duzentos e cinquenta segundos desde o primeiro assentamento da Nova Inglaterra

PAIS DO PEREGRINO.
LOCAL CONSAGRADO EM 17 DE AGOSTO DE 1871
ASSOCIATION INCORPORATED em 4 de maio de 1872.
ASSOCIAÇÃO ORGANIZADA. AND GROUND Interrompido em 17 de junho de 1872.
CANTO DA FUNDAÇÃO COLOCADA EM AGOSTO. 9, 1872.

Ele era o filho de um soldado , criado como um soldado nos Países Baixos. & Quot (New English Canaan, Thomas Morton, Amsterdam, 1637) - Ele era da noble casa de Standish. (A General History of New England, William Hubbard, escrito em 1650, publicado pela primeira vez em Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1815)

“Ele era um cavalheiro, nascido em Lancashire e era o herdeiro aparente de uma grande propriedade de terras e meios de subsistência. . Quando era mais jovem, ele foi para os países baixos, foi um soldado lá e conheceu a igreja de Leyden e veio para a Nova Inglaterra.
(New England's Memoriall, * Nathaniel Morton, 1669)

O único registro do próprio Myles está em seu testamento: Cláusula 9,


& quot & amp heire aparent eu dou ao meu filho I Allexander Standish todas as minhas terras como herdeiro aparente por legalmente decente em Ormistick Borsconge Wrightington Maudsley Newburrow Crawston # e na Ilha de homem e dado a mim como herdeiro legítimo por legalmente decente, mas [.] ruptuo [ eu?] dissimuladamente detido de mim meu grandeG [..] gordo [.] er sendo um irmão de 2 anos ou mais jovem [. ] da casa de Standish of Standish por mee Myles Standish, em 7 de março de 1655.

(1656, datação moderna) Minha transcrição de uma cópia do Registro do Tribunal de Plymouth original. Moderno: Ormskirk, Burscough, Wrightington, Mawdesley, Newburgh, Croston. * Nathaniel Morton (1669) deu surreptitiously . Alexandre, filho de Myles, registrou esperanças de ainda ser capaz de recuperar essas terras em seu Testamento de 1702.

Também minha vontade é Aquele que quer que seja. Propriedade, seja na Nova Inglaterra ou na antiga, que entreguei nas mãos de Robert Orchard para Recuperar na Inglaterra por cartas de Procurador sob minhas mãos e Selo E John Rogers de Boston na Nova Inglaterra por uma carta of Procurador sob minha mão e selo de amp Ser recuperado após minha morte meu testamento é que minha esposa receba sua terceira parte e o restante para ser dividido igualmente entre Thomas Standish Ichabod Standish * e Desire Standish.

Alexander s Will, 21 de fevereiro de 1702, provado em 10 de agosto de 1702. (Porteus, 1920, p. 19, dando ref: The Mayflower Descendant vol. XII, pp. 101-10 2, transcrição da cópia em Plymouth Court Records .) * Ichabod viveu de 1693 a 1777, o neto mais jovem de Myles e o último a morrer.

Nenhum registro contemporâneo autenticado de seu nome foi descoberto até agora na Europa, nem o de seu pai ou avô. Essa total escassez de documentação é em si curiosa e significativa, já que os Standish eram grandes acumuladores de papéis familiares. Mais de 1000 documentos Standish já foram resumidos no dia 17.ce pelo menos 700 documentos iniciais adicionais ainda existem em vários Lancashire e Arquivos Nacionais. Acrescente a isso as dezenas de referências do Standish em Volumes da Record Society e as entradas de c.1000 Standish no 16th / 7th.c Parish Registers em Lancashire, e pode-se esperar encontrar alguns vestígios. Nem mesmo um smidgeon. Essa total falta de aparência já levanta suspeitas de uma conspiração de silêncio ligada à surreição detenção de seu Testamento. Felizmente, no entanto, o bisavô de seu testamento escapou da obliteração total, e os documentos mencionados acima, juntamente com vários fatos históricos e outras fontes (mapas etc.), finalmente revelaram seus segredos, fornecendo os seguintes detalhes, resolvendo assim a maior parte dos os mistérios que cercam Myles:

i) A identificação conclusiva de seu bisavô Standish e, portanto, de sua ascendência (ele era Alexander, b.1491 / 2, primeiro filho do segundo casamento em 1490/1 de Sir Christopher Standish de Duxbury (c.1450-1496) com Alice (c.1470-15 18), filha mais velha de Sir Alexander Standish de Standish (c.1450-1507), e o primeiro neto a levar seu nome).

ii) A localização quase certa de algumas das terras reivindicadas em seu Testamento (aquelas em Mawdesely e Croston, particularmente a Ilha de Man em Croston / Bretherton).

iii) A história completa da surreptícia detenção (as terras em Ormskirk, etc. foram sequestradas durante a Guerra Civil, porque os Senhores das Mansões nas quais estavam suas terras eram realistas, e a maioria dos inquilinos foram coagidos a Exército Realista do Conde de Derby).

iv) A história completa das várias reivindicações de Myles e do filho Alexandre às terras perdidas (esses protestos foram instigados como resultado do sequestro inicial e, subsequentemente, após a Restauração em 1660 e a Revolução Gloriosa em 1688).

The Arms of Standish of Duxbury
Braços: Azul, pratos com três pés, argento Crista Um Galo, zibelina, bico, depilado, penteado, com pernas e esporão, Ou

v) A história completa por trás da tradição familiar de que Myles era o herdeiro legítimo de Duxbury Hall (a linha principal de Standish de Duxbury morreu em 1583) e seus sucessores morreram em 1647, o que de fato deixou Myles como o herdeiro legítimo, como o único sobrevivendo 2x bisneto de Sir Christopher. Ele foi frustrado em sua reivindicação, entretanto, por um rival formidável, o coronel parlamentar Richard Standish de Manchester, mais tarde M.P. para o Condado e Preston, e um dos homens mais ricos e poderosos de Lancashire após a Guerra Civil).

vi) A confirmação de que provavelmente frequentou a Rivington Grammar School.

vii) Os mais fortes candidatos possíveis para a família de sua primeira esposa Rose e aquela que lhe legou seu nome (Sumner de Croston), e de sua segunda esposa Bárbara (Leigh).

viii) A certeza de que ele e seu pai tinham linhas de contato bastante diretas com a Shakespeare & amp Co., os comandantes da guerra nos Países Baixos, Elizabeth I, James I e seus principais ministros.

ix) A localização de Duxbury (Old) Hall e The Pelé, e sua história.

x) The complete history of early Standish of Duxbury, rather different from previous versions.

xi) The complete history of Duxbury of Duxbury, also rather different from previous versions.

These discoveries began to emerge in late in 1996, when I started to research the history of Duxbury and the Duxbury of Duxbury.

This was prompted because I had a Duxbury grandma, who was from an interesting Darwen Duxbury family, whose line back to c. 1600 had been fairly easily established (with the help of Ray Aspden and Tony Foster - thanks). I became curious to know more about the early family, which led incidentally to research on the Standish of Duxbury and elsewhere, as there were at least three Standish - Duxbury marriages.

I was already interested in Myles, as there had long been speculation in my Duxbury family as to whether we were somehow connected to him. Also, my father s family -- Ward of Mellor near Blackburn- had for centuries passed down the name Myles, the last one being my uncle (the black sheep of the family!), which added even more zest to the research.

In October 1997, in the middle of writing the story of the Duxbury of Duxbury, I serendipitously stumbled across Alexander, the strongest possible candidate for Myles great- grandfather. From then on I concentrated on the Standish of Duxbury, and never-ending revelations poured off virtually every page of original documentation, particularly from the Standish of Duxbury Muniments, which had been examined by at least two previous researchers, who were, however, interested in different places or periods. (See. Jim Heyes, A History of Chorley, Lancashire County Books, 1994 and W. Walker, Duxbury in Decline (1756-1932), Palatine Books, 1995. Finally, while checking references during the writing of one of the last chapters of the Myles book on Easter Monday 1999, I was rewarded by the realisation that before my eyes lay the extremely complex, but definitive proof of Myles descent from the Alexander stumbled over eighteen months earlier. At this point I abandoned the book and started to write this series of articles!

The proof will be presented in c. 2000 words in Part 4 - it lies mainly in all the changes in (mis)information on various 1664/5 Visitation Pedigrees from previous ones of 1567 and 1613, and the diary, itinerary and Office copy of Sir William Dugdale (CSOS Vols. 81, 82, 84, & 110, p. 104), which, when juxtaposed, show clearly that an intensive but ultimately unsuccessful investigation was undertaken in early 1664, hunting for a second or younger son of Sir Alexander Standish of Standish , almost certainly named Alexander, who was known to be directly descended from (Sir) Christopher Standish and Alice Standish. This search could only have been instigated by Myles son Alexander, who was trying to prove his ancestry to be able to reclaim his lands.

Nearly 200 years and five generations on from Sir C. Alexander was no longer aware of the precise relationships.

Behind every discovery claimed above lies a chapter or section in the forthcoming Myles book, presenting the proof contained in one of the following collections of documents or manuscripts:

The Standish of Standish Deeds (West Mss., 1771 in Earwaker, 1877, 1878,

1898 Porteus, 1933 (held by Wigan Archives in Leigh).

The Standish of Duxbury Muniments (held by the Lancashire Record Office (DP397).

The Hesketh of Rufford Muniments (held by the LRO, Preston (DDHe).

All Standish Wills to 1657 held by the LRO.

All Standish references given mainly in the Victoria County History, and Volumes of the Chetham Society and the Lancashire and Cheshire Record Society, Old Series and New Series of both, including Assize Rolls, Plea Rolls, Inquisitions post mortem, Civil War Tracts, etc., etc., and many references to the Dodsworth Mss., Towneley Mss., Kuerden Mss. (l7th.c) and Piccope Mss. (19th.c) (held variously by the British Library, the College of Arms, the Chetham Society and Manchester Central Library Archives).

Chorley, Standish & Ormskirk Parish Registers (Lancs. Parish Record Society).

International Genealogical Index for Lancashire (1992 microfiche version, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah).

There was so much new information, plus that from previous research, that I realised early on that it must sensibly be divided into four books, and The Duxbury Quartet was conceived, with publication announced in this Journal and its web site, with details for purchase.


Conteúdo

Original use Edit

Duxbury was settled by inhabitants of Plymouth Colony in 1627. In that year, the first land division was held and the shoreline of the present-day towns of Plymouth, Duxbury and Marshfield was divided into farmsteads. The families who settled in Duxborough, as it was then called, petitioned in 1632 to be set off as a separate town. The petition was granted in 1637 and Duxbury was permitted to build its own meeting house. [3] The meeting house was constructed on a knoll overlooking an inlet of Plymouth Bay known as Morton's Hole. The small path that once ran alongside it is now a modern road known as Chestnut Street. The town's first burying ground was located adjacent to the original meeting house. A stone marker within the burying ground designates the approximate location of the first meeting house. [4]

With the meeting house in place by 1638, the burying ground came into use shortly thereafter. The earliest graves were marked with simple fieldstones or wooden markers that have since deteriorated or vanished. [5] It is believed that most of Duxbury's 17th century residents were interred within the burying ground, however, due to the lack of markers, their exact resting places are unknown. The oldest extant carved gravestone in the cemetery is that of Captain Jonathan Alden, who died in 1697. [6] He was the youngest child of Mayflower passengers John Alden and Priscilla Mullins Alden.

The second oldest grave is that of Rev. Ichabod Wiswall, who was the second pastor of the Duxbury church from 1676 until his death in 1700. Wiswall was part of a three-man delegation, including Rev. Increase Mather, sent to London in 1691 to petition for a new charter for Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth Colonies. This effort resulted in the 1692 charter which established the Province of Massachusetts Bay, merging the two colonies. [7]

In all, there are approximately 130 marked graves in the cemetery. [8] Tradition suggests that there were once many more and, according to a 19th-century Duxbury resident, it was once possible to "jump from stone to stone from one side of the graveyard to the other." [9] With the disappearance of many stones, the existing markers are now sparsely scattered. The surviving gravestones date mostly from the 1760s and the 1770s. Only 34 stones pre-date 1750. [8]

Around 1707, the Town constructed a second meeting house "three or four rods," about 50 to 66 feet or 15 to 20 metres, to the east of the original meeting house. [10] A stone marker indicates the approximate location of the second meeting house which stood from c. 1707 to 1786 on a 0.5-acre (0.20 ha) lot adjacent to the burying ground. In 2008, the Duxbury Rural and Historical Society undertook an archaeological dig, locating the remains of the second meeting house foundation. [11] When the second meeting house became outdated, the town elected in 1785 to build a third meeting house in a location about 0.75 miles (1.21 km) from the Old Burying Ground. A new cemetery, now known as the Mayflower Cemetery, was established next to the new meeting house on Tremont Street. Consequently, the Old Burying Ground fell out of use by 1789. [8]

Neglect and rediscovery Edit

In time, the original burying ground of Duxbury's first settlers became overgrown and all but forgotten. Cattle strayed over the burying ground and thick brush obscured many of the markers for most of the 19th century. [12] With the publication of The Courtship of Miles Standish by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1858, New Englanders began to take an increased interest in Pilgrim history. Duxbury, then suffering an economic slump after the loss of the shipbuilding industry, suddenly saw new business in the form of tourism. The Old Burying Ground became the focus of new attention in the late 19th century as the community sought to explore and reclaim its colonial past. [13]

In 1887, the Duxbury Rural Society (now the Duxbury Rural and Historical Society), which had been established a few years earlier to improve and beautify the town, embarked on a major project of reclaiming the Old Burying Ground. Brush was removed, gravestones repaired and a fence built around the cemetery to ward off cattle. [14] The burying ground has been maintained as a local historic site ever since.

Myles Standish gravesite Edit

As interest in the Old Burying Ground increased during the late 19th century, visitors to Duxbury frequently inquired after the gravesite of Captain Myles Standish, leader of the Pilgrim militia and one of the first settlers of Duxbury. In the 1880s, there was considerable debate as to the final resting place of Capt. Standish. [15] After much research, it was generally agreed that Standish was buried beneath two pyramidal fieldstones in the center of the Old Burying Ground. To determine for certain whether the strange stones in fact marked the Standish family plot, the Duxbury Rural Society decided to exhume the graves beneath the stones in 1889. The project was controversial and proceeded only after lengthy debate. [16] In the course of the exhumation, the skeleton of an elderly male and a young woman were discovered. A newspaper reporter present for the exhumation wrote that, "nothing definite came of the effort" and the remains were re-interred. [17]

In 1890, Rev. Eugene J.V. Huiginn came to Duxbury as a new minister of the local Episcopal Church. An avid antiquarian, Huiginn was fascinated by Pilgrim history and disappointed to find that the graves of the earliest settlers could not be decisively located. [18] He came to the conclusion that the 1889 exhumation had not adequately investigated the site and should have opened more graves. Huiginn obtained permission from the Town of Duxbury to open the graves again and, on April 25 and May 12, 1891, Huiginn and a small team excavated two different portions of the purported Standish burial plot. [19]

In the course of the 1891 investigation, the graves of four individuals were uncovered: an elderly man alleged by Huiginn to be Myles Standish, two adult women alleged to be Lora Standish (Myles Standish's daughter) and Mary Dingley Standish (Myles Standish's daughter-in-law), and a boy conjectured to be either Charles or John Standish (Myles Standish's sons) who both died young. A physician, Dr. Wilfred G. Brown of Duxbury, was present and was able to identify the gender and age at death of the subjects. These apparent ages were consistent with the historical death records of the above-mentioned members of the Standish family. These consistencies were Huiginn's primary evidence in identifying the remains of Myles Standish. [20] Other evidence included the burial of the elderly male between the two women, consistent with the fact that Standish, in his will, requested to be buried between his daughter and daughter-in-law. [21] Measurements and photographs were taken of the remains and Myles Standish was re-interred in a new pine coffin.

Huiginn led an effort, following this project, to have a substantial memorial placed over the Standish family plot. Constructed in 1893, the memorial is built around the two, small pyramidal stones which originally marked the plot and consists of a castellated stone wall with cannons mounted on each corner. Three large boulders bear the names of Myles Standish, Lora Standish and Mary Dingley Standish. The cannons, dating to 1853, were purchased from the Boston Navy Yard.

There would be a third exhumation of the remains of Myles Standish. Some of his descendants, unhappy with the fact that Standish had been re-interred in a pine coffin, requested the construction of a vault beneath the memorial to better preserve their ancestor's remains. In 1931, they were granted permission by the Town to excavate the site. On this occasion there was a very large crowd present. Standish's remains were placed in a copper box, which in turn was placed in a cement chamber beneath the memorial. A copper tube containing time capsule material was also placed within the chamber. [22]

20th-century markers Edit

In 1930, the Alden Kindred of America, a non-profit organization composed of descendants of John and Priscilla Alden, placed slate gravestones to mark the approximate location of the resting places of John Alden, who died in 1687, and Priscilla Mullins Alden, who died around 1680. The markers were erected close to other Alden family stones, including that of their son Jonathan Alden, presuming that John and Priscilla were buried nearby. [23]

Descendants of George Soule, another passenger of the Mayflower, placed a marker in 1971 at the supposed location of Soule's grave, near other Soule family markers.

In 1977, the American Cemetery Association placed a plaque at the entrance to the burying ground proclaiming it "The Oldest Maintained Cemetery in the United States."

    , Mayflower Pilgrim , Mayflower Pilgrim , Mayflower Pilgrim , Mayflower Pilgrim , third minister of Duxbury church
  1. ^ Huiginn, Eugene Joseph Vincent The Graves of Myles Standish and Other Pilgrims (1892)[1] (accessed July 18, 2009 on Google Books).
  2. ^ Browne, Patrick T.J. and Forgit, Norman R. Duxbury. Past and Present. Duxbury: Duxbury Rural and Historical Society (2009), 38.
  3. ^ Winsor, Justin. History of the Town of Duxbury. Boston: Crosby & Nichols (1849), 173.
  4. ^ Wentworth, Dorothy. Settlement and Growth of Duxbury, 1628–1870. Duxbury: Duxbury Rural and Historical Society (2000) 3rd edition, 20.
  5. ^ Pillsbury, Katherine H. Duxbury, A Guide. Duxbury: Duxbury Rural and Historical Society (1999), 34.
  6. ^ Pillsbury, 36.
  7. ^ Winsor, 113.
  8. ^ umabc"Standish Burial Grounds Decedent Locator". Town of Duxbury Cemetery Department . Retrieved January 22, 2010 .
  9. ^ Wentworth, 22.
  10. ^ Wentworth, 21.
  11. ^
  12. "Archaeological Dig a Great Success" (PDF) . The Lamplighter: The Newsletter of the Duxbury Rural and Historical Society. Fall 2008 . Retrieved January 22, 2010 .
  13. ^ Browne and Forgit, 38.
  14. ^ Pillsbury, 37.
  15. ^ Browne and Forgit, 38.
  16. ^ Huiginn, Eugene Joseph Vincent. The Graves of Myles Standish and Other Pilgrims. Beverly: Published by the author (1914), 14.
  17. ^ Browne and Forgit, 40–41.
  18. ^ Huiginn, 119.
  19. ^ Huiginn, 14.
  20. ^ Huiginn, 121.
  21. ^ Huiginn, 130–145.
  22. ^ Huiginn, 194.
  23. ^ Browne and Forgit, 41.
  24. ^ Pillsbury, 36

Myles Standish's skull discovered in the Standish gravesite at Myles Standish Burial Ground during an investigation of the grave


Myles Standish and the Indians

The Indians, having got one taste of the firearms of the white men, were afraid to attack Plymouth. But they thought that they might get rid of the white men by witchcraft. So they held what they called a "powwow" in a big swamp, to persuade the spirits to kill or drive away the newcomers. Sometimes the Pilgrims would see some Indians on a hill-top near Plymouth. But the savages always ran away as soon as they were discovered. Perhaps they came to see whether the Plymouth people had all been killed by the spirits.

But in the spring a chief from a place farther east came to visit the Indians near Plymouth. He had met English fishermen and learned a little English. He was not afraid to visit the white men. Walking boldly into the little town, he said, "Welcome, Englishmen." The Pilgrims were surprised to hear two English words from the mouth of an Indian.

They treated this Indian well, and he came again bringing an Indian named Squanto [squon'-to] who could speak more English. Squanto, who had lived at Plymouth, was one of the Indians carried away to Spain by Captain Hunt. From Spain he had been taken to England, and then brought back to America. When he got home to Plymouth he found that all the people of his village had died of the pestilence.

Squanto now came again to the old home of his people at Plymouth and lived with the Pilgrims. He showed the English a way to catch eels by treading them out of the mud with his feet. He knew the woods and waters well, and he showed them how to hunt and fish. He taught them how to plant Indian corn as the Indians did, putting a fish or two in every hill for manure, and then watching the fields for a while to keep the wolves from digging up the buried fish. Without the seed corn and the help of Squanto the whole colony would have starved.

Squanto liked to make himself important among the Indians by boasting of the power of his friends the white men. He talked about the dreadful gunpowder kept in the cellar at Plymouth. He also told them that the horrid pestilence was kept in the same cellar with the powder.

Massasoit [mas'-sa-soit], the chief of Squanto's tribe, came to see the Pilgrims, bringing some other Indians with him. They were taken into the largest house in Plymouth and seated on a green mat and some cushions. The Governor of the colony was then brought in while the trumpets were blowing and the drums beating. This parade pleased the Indians, but they were much afraid of the Plymouth people. Afterwards the Pilgrims sent Massasoit a red cotton coat and a copper chain, and by degrees a firm friendship was made between him and the white men.

Captain Standish was a little man, and one of his enemies once nicknamed him "Captain Shrimp." But the Indians soon learned to be afraid of him. When a chief near by threatened to trouble the Pilgrims and kill Squanto, Standish marched to the spot and surrounded his wigwam. Having fired on the Indians and frightened them, he took three whom he had wounded back to Plymouth with him. The white people cured their wounds and sent them home again.

The Nar-ra-gan'-sett Indians were enemies of Massasoit. None of their people had died of the pestilence, and they were therefore stronger than Massasoit's tribe. The Narragansetts sent a bundle of arrows to Plymouth tied up in a snake's skin. Squanto told the English that this meant to say that they would come and make war on Plymouth. The Pilgrims filled the snake's skin with bullets, and sent it back. This was to say, "Shoot your arrows at us and we will kill you with our bullets." The Narragansetts were so afraid of the bullets that they sent them back to Plymouth, and there was no war.

When the Pilgrims had been settled at Plymouth more than a year, a ship brought them news of the dreadful massacre that had taken place in Virginia. The Pilgrims were afraid something of the kind might happen to them. So Captain Standish trained the Plymouth men, and they kept guard every night. They put cannon on the roof of their meetinghouse and carried their guns to church.

A company of people from England made a settlement at Weymouth [way'-muth], not very far from Plymouth. They were rude and familiar, and the Indians soon despised them. Some Indian warriors made a plan to kill them all. They intended to kill the Plymouth people at the same time. But Massasoit told the Pilgrims about it, and said they must go and kill the leaders before they had a chance to kill the white men.

Captain Standish set out for the colony at Weymouth. He took but few men, so that the Indians might not guess what he came for. But they saw that the little captain was very "angry in his heart," as they said. Seeing how few his men were, they tried to frighten him.

One of these Indians named Wittamut sharpened the knife which he wore hanging about his neck. While sharpening it he said to Captain Standish: "This is a good knife. On the handle is the picture of a woman's face. But I have another knife at home with which I have killed both Frenchmen and Englishmen. That knife has a man's face on it. After a while these two will get married."

A large Indian named Pecksuot said: "You are a captain, but you are a little man. I am not a chief, but I am strong and brave."

It was now a question whether Standish would attack the Indians or wait for them to begin. One day when Wittamut, Pecksuot, and two other Indians were in the room with Standish and some of his men, the captain made a signal, and himself snatched the knife that hung on Pecksuot's neck and stabbed him to death after a terrible struggle. His men killed the other Indians in the same way. The rest of their tribe fled to the woods for fear, and after that the English were called "stabbers" in the Indian language.

The Pilgrims were often very near to starvation during the first years after they settled at Plymouth. At one time they lived on clams and lobsters and such fish as they could catch. Standish made many voyages along the coast, trading with the Indians for furs, which were sent to England and exchanged for whatever the settlers might need.

A P LYMOUTH S ETTLER CATCHING HIS D INNER

A few years after the Pilgrims settled Plymouth people began to settle near them, and in 1630 there came over a large number of people, who founded Boston and other Massachusetts towns. Captain Standish lived to be more than seventy years old and to see many thousands of people in New England. He owned a place at Duxbury, just across the bay from Plymouth. He died there in 1656. The hill which he owned is still called "Captain's Hill."

Witch'-craft, the use of charms or ceremonies in order to persuade the spirits to do some wonderful thing. Pow'-wow, mysterious ceremonies practice by the Indians. Shrimp, a creature resembling a lobster, but smaller a little wrinkled man. Sig'-nal, a sign given to another.

Tell in your own words— How the Indians tried to get rid of the white men. How the first Indian came to Plymouth. About Squanto. About Massasoit. About the Narragansetts. How and why Standish killed certain Indians. About the beginning of Boston.


Legacy

Several towns and military installations have been named for Standish and monuments have been built in his memory. Chorley has a road and visitor centre in his honor. The former Fort Standish, located on Lovell's Island, Massachusetts, was named in his honor, as well as the town of Standish, Maine.

One of the best known depictions of Standish in popular culture was the 1858 book, "The Courtship of Miles Standish" by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Highly fictionalized, the story presents Standish as a timid romantic. It was extremely popular in the 19th century and played a significant role in cementing the Pilgrim story in American culture.


Myles Standish

Little is known of Myles Standish's early life, other than that he probably came from Lancashire, England, and had fought the Spaniards in the Netherlands. Hired by the Leiden Pilgrims to manage the military defenses of the prospective colony, Standish was not a member of the Leiden congregation, although he quickly became a loyal supporter of the Pilgrim venture.

When he arrived in New England, Standish's first responsibility was to give practical assistance in the explorations for a permanent place for settlement. Standish participated in the venture that discovered corn (later used as seed to save the colony from starvation) and in the expedition that made initial contact with the Indians and later landed at the future site of the colony. Once the colony was begun, he turned his attention to building its defenses. He supervised construction of the town fort and directed the organization and training of the local militia.

Standish also commanded military expeditions sent out from Plymouth to aid allies or to suppress enemies. Once he led a party of Pilgrims to aid Squanto and a group of friendly Indians. Another time he helped an English village at Wessagussett (Weymouth) threatened by Indian attack. There Standish demonstrated his personal courage when, in a conference with the Indians, he had the doors to the building barred and then called for an assault on the potential enemy, personally killing the Indian leader.

Perhaps the most entertaining example of Standish's military leadership was his seriocomic capture of Thomas Morton of Merrimount in 1628. Morton's emphasis on riotous living, selling firearms to the Indians, and paying high prices for furs threatened the piety and profit of New Plymouth. Standish led the assault on Merrimount. In a maneuver similar to the one used against the Indians at Wessagussett, he barred the doors and made ready to battle Morton. Morton and his two associates were "soe steeled with drink," however, that they could not resist capture.

Standish was the colony's first agent to return to England, and he also served as envoy to other New England colonies. He was known for his aggressiveness and quick temper. But it was as the Pilgrims' military adviser and commander that he made his greatest contribution. He developed a strong defensive posture for New Plymouth and directed the colony's militia with an exceptional degree of personal heroism and dedicated leadership. He died in Duxbury, Mass., on Oct. 3, 1656.


Captain Myles Standish: Separatist Pilgrim, or Roman Catholic Soldier of Fortune?

The Mayflower set sail from England in 1620 with 102 passengers (fifty men, twenty women, twenty-two boys, and ten girls).2 This number includes three crew members who were hired to remain permanently in Plymouth and two crew members hired to remain for one year. Not included in the number are Oceanus Hopkins (a boy born at sea) and Peregrine White (a boy born on the ship while it was anchored off Provincetown, Cape Cod)—making the actual number of “passengers” to be 104. William Butten died at sea, and four more3 died on board after arrival at Cape Cod, making ninety-nine the total of those who actually reached “Plymouth Rock.” For half a century, the traditional number of Mayflower Separatists has been “forty-one.𔄦 Recent research, however, reveals an additional sixteen, raising the total to fifty-seven, including thirteen women, nineteen children (fourteen boys and five girls), and twenty-five men, one of whom (Giles Heale) was also listed with the crew. This means that fifty percent of the men were identified with the Christian Separatists these men were the leaders of the mission. Those who were not Separatists were servants and adventurers.

The most recognizable addition to the list of Separatists is Captain Myles Standish,5 long considered a mere soldier of fortune by some and a nominal Roman Catholic by others. Such descriptions are clearly false, originating in the works of Thomas Morton and William Hubbard. After arresting Thomas Morton for supplying guns to the Indians, Captain Standish had sent him back to England. Retaliating against the Pilgrims, Morton later wrote a caricature called New English Canaan, which demeans Standish as the ambitious “Captain Shrimp,” (referring to his small stature).6 William Hubbard, a Massachusetts Bay Colony historian writing near the end of the seventeenth century, said that Standish was outside “the school of our Saviour.𔄩 Based on Hubbard’s remark, along with records of the Standish family going back to a thirteenth-century Roman Catholic family, there have been frequent references to Standish as a “Roman Catholic.” His family roots, however, can hardly be any proof of his own position. As Jeremy Bangs noted, “The myth that Myles Standish was Catholic was created in Boston to inspire youthful Irish immigrants.𔄪 Hubbard’s negative attitude toward the Pilgrims’ relations with the Indians degenerated into a personal attack against Standish. Portraying Standish’s character as hot-tempered, Hubbard compared the captain to a “little chimney [that] is quickly fired.𔄫 Such unfounded remarks, however, are a caricature upon the character of this good man.

The following entry in the Plymouth Colony Records indicates that Myles Standish attended the Plymouth Church with his family and may have a been a member at the time the record was made: “Anno 1632 Aprell 2—the names of those which promise to remove their families to live in the town in the winter time that they may the better repaire to the worship of God—John Alden, Capt. Standish, Jonathan Brewster, Thomas Prence.󈭞 Perhaps the real Myles Standish will never be known, but there is more to him than popular descriptions imply. Already in Holland before the Pilgrims arrived, Standish was one of the thousands of British soldiers fighting in the Dutch army in the revolt against Roman Catholic Spanish Hapsburg dominion. In Plymouth Colony, he knew what he needed to do in regard to defending the colony. It was sometimes a messy job. He was quiet about church matters, possibly because he wanted to avoid reflecting upon the testimony of the church. There is no way to determine Standish’s personal spiritual condition. His four sons joined Separatist churches in the towns where they lived, and there are numerous records of their serving in high places of spiritual leadership, such as deaconries.11 In addition to being the military captain, Myles Standish served for six years as Treasurer of the Colony. In 1649, he was made commander-in-chief for the entire Colony. He was faithful to the end in giving his life for the Separatists of Plymouth. The Christian Governor William Bradford mentions people who, during the starving time, were special examples of sacrifice and loyalty, “showing herein their true love unto their friends and brethren a rare example and worthy to be remembered. Two of these seven were Mr. William Brewster, their reverend Elder, and Myles Standish, their captain and military commander.󈭠

William Bradford’s nephew, Nathaniel Morton, arrived in Plymouth in 1623, grew up in the Bradford home, and earned a reputation of being strict, orthodox, and Separatist. In his New England’s Memorial (1669), Morton wrote this of Myles Standish at his death in 1656

This year Captain Miles Standish expired his mortal life. . . . In his younger time he went over into the low countries, and was a soldier there, and came acquainted with the church at Leyden, and came over into New England, with such of them as at the first set out for the planting of the plantation of New Plimouth, and bare a deep share of their first difficulties, and was always very faithful to their interest. He growing ancient, became sick of the stone, or stranguary, whereof, after his suffering of much dolorous pain, he fell asleep in the Lord, and was honourably buried at Duxbury.13

The Pilgrim pastor John Robinson, in one of his last letters from Leiden, refers to Myles Standish as the “Captain, whom I love, and am persuaded the Lord in great mercy and for much good hath sent. He is a man humble and meek amongst you, and towards all in ordinary course.󈭢 Standish left a legacy to Pastor Robinson’s granddaughter, Mercy. He refers to her in his will as “Marcye Robenson[,] whome I tenderly love for her Grandfathers sacke.” Most of the books in Standish’s “Will and Inventory” are sermons and theological works of some of the greatest of the Puritans, including Jeremiah Burroughs and John Preston. He owned “Calvin’s Institutions.” He owned three “old Bibles,” plus “a Testament,” and “one Psalme booke.󈭣 It should not be surprising that the Pilgrims themselves regarded Myles Standish as one of the most beloved of all the passengers on the Mayflower. Isaac de RasiËre, Secretary of the West India Company’s Government at Manhattan, visited Plymouth in March 1627. He penned the following description of the Pilgrims’ place of worship and order of assembling, with Captain Myles Standish occupying a prominent place in the order of the Pilgrim church

Upon the hill they had a large square house, with a flat roof, made of thick sawn planks, stayed with oak beams, upon the top of which they have six cannons, which shoot iron balls of four and five pounds, and command the surrounding country. The lower part they use for their church, where they preach on Sundays and the usual holidays. They assemble by beat of drum, each with his musket or firelock, in front of the captain’s door they have their cloaks on, and place themselves in order, three abreast, and are led by a sergeant without beat of drum. Behind comes the Governor, in a long robe beside him on the right hand comes the preacher with his cloak on, and on the left hand the captain with his side-arms and cloak on, and with a small cane in his hand and so they march in good order, and each sets his arms down near him. Thus they enter their place of worship, constantly on their guard night and day.16


Captain Myles Standish

Capt. Myles Standish. (c. 1584 - October 3, 1656) was one of the passengers aboard the Mayflower, arriving in Plymouth Colony in the late-fall of 1620. Little is known of his early life and career. He was most likely raised in Lancashire, England and it is believed that he served in the English Military in Holland during the early 1600 s in aid of the Dutch in their Eighty Years' War against Spain.

While living in Holland, Standish came in contact with the English Protestant dissenters, known as Separatists, in Leiden. Although not a follower of their religion, he was hired to accompany these Pilgrims on their journey to the New World and act as their military advisor. He and his wife, Rose, were aboard the Mayflower during its harrowing two-month long voyage across the Atlantic. Once in Plymouth, Standish played a leading role in the defense and administration of the Colony, organizing the Colony's defenses and becoming the first commander of the militia. He also served on the Governor s Council of Assistants and as the Colony's treasurer.

In 1627, Standish and his second wife, Barbara (his first wife died in January 1621), received a land grant of 120 acres not far from this burying ground and helped establish the town of Duxbury. It is commonly believed that the town is named for a Standish

family manor, Duxbury Hall, in Chorley, Lancashire, England.

Standish was a courageous yet sometimes brutal military commander, who led expeditions against the native population as well as against the French and even other English settlers. The military side of Standish has been overshadowed by the Henry Wadsworth Longfellow romantic narrative poem, The Courtship of Myles Standish (1858). The poem's popularity elevated Standish and fellow Pilgrim John Alden and Priscilla Mullins to American folk-heroes and is partially responsible for the late 19th century fervor over finding Standish's grave.

When he died in 1656, he was buried in this burying ground. His grave, like most at the time, did not receive a carved headstone. However, oral tradition, passed down through generations held that his resting place was marked instead with two pyramid-shaped field stones. In 1889, as this burying ground was being reclaimed and cleared, two stones matching the above description were discovered. A dig commenced to verify Standish s burial location, but the initial findings were inconclusive.

Two years later, in 1891, another larger dig took place. This time, the skeleton of a man, observed to have red and gray hair remaining on the skull, was shown to be buried between two women. The skull was consistent with Standish, and the location of the two female skeletons

was consistent with Standish's request to be buried between his daughter, Lora, and daughter-in-law Mary (Dingly) Standish. Also, the remains of two boys were found nearby, possibly his sons Charles and John Standish.

The evidence was enough to convince those participating in the exhumation, including several descendants, that they had indeed found Myles Standish. In 1930, Standish was exhumed one final time and his remains were placed in a copper box and hermetically sealed, before being reinterred.

The fieldstone enclosure you see before you was erected in 1893. At that time, three engraved state markers were placed in the enclosure beside the two pyramid-shaped field stones, marking the graves of Standish and his daughter and daughter-in-law. The castellated stone walls of the enclosure hold four 19th century cannons (dating from 1853, and relocated from the Boston Navy Yard), which were loaned to the Town by the US Navy.

Erected by Duxbury Community Preservation Act Fund.

Topics. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: Colonial Era &bull Exploration &bull Settlements & Settlers. A significant historical month for this entry is January 1621.

Localização. 42° 1.513′ N, 70° 41.249′ W. Marker is in Duxbury, Massachusetts, in Plymouth County. Marker is on Pilgrim By-Way Paid Advertisement

north of Chestnut Street, on the right when traveling north. Touch for map. Marker is in this post office area: Duxbury MA 02332, United States of America. Touch for directions.

Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. America's Oldest Maintained Cemetery (within shouting distance of this marker) Memorial Stones of John and Priscilla Alden (within shouting distance of this marker) Welcome to the Old Burial Ground, c. 1632-1787 (within shouting distance of this marker) Site of First Church (within shouting distance of this marker) Site of Second Meeting House (within shouting distance of this marker) Welcome to the Old Burying Ground, c. 1632-1787 (within shouting distance of this marker) Site of Nook Gate (approx. half a mile away) The Beginning of the Bradford House (approx. 0.9 miles away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Duxbury.


The Oldest Cemetery In America Is Right Here In Massachusetts And It’s Eerily Enchanting

The oldest cemetery in America is tucked away in Duxbury, and it has a crazy history.

Myles Standish Burial Ground is a small cemetery hidden off of a quiet residential road, but its place in history is anything but tiny. This graveyard is full of the mortal remains of the passengers who traveled to the New World on the Mayflower: the Pilgrims. This 378-year-old cemetery is definitely one unusual destination you won’t want to miss.

The popularity of the poem helped to spur public interest in rediscovering New England’s colonial roots, and in the late 19th-century the town of Duxbury began the hunt for the lovelorn captain. However, by that time the town’s burial ground had become overgrown and trampled by cows.

Officials literally began digging around until they identified a body they believed to be Standish, which involved two separate attempts at identification. In 1931, however, Duxbury exhumed the body of Standish once more in order to bury him in a more secure, sealed copper coffin. Standish was buried a total of four times.

You can find the Myles Standish Burial Ground on Chestnut Street in Duxbury. If you’re in the mood for another creepy and cool Massachusetts attraction, head to what may be the most unusual preserved home in the state.


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