488º Destacamento de Inteligência Militar

488º Destacamento de Inteligência Militar

Em 1956, Jack Alston Crichton iniciou sua própria unidade de espionagem, o 488º Destacamento de Inteligência Militar em Dallas. Crichton serviu como comandante da unidade sob o comando do tenente-coronel George Whitmeyer, que comandava todas as unidades da Reserva do Exército no leste do Texas. Em uma entrevista, Crichton afirmou que havia "cerca de cem homens naquela unidade e cerca de quarenta ou cinquenta deles eram do Departamento de Polícia de Dallas".

Em novembro de 1963, Jack Alston Crichton participou dos preparativos da visita do presidente John F. Kennedy a Dallas. Seu amigo íntimo, o subchefe de polícia George L. Lumpkin, e um colega do 488º Destacamento de Inteligência Militar, dirigiam o carro-piloto da carreata de Kennedy. Também no carro estava o tenente-coronel George Whitmeyer, comandante de todas as unidades da Reserva do Exército no leste do Texas. O carro-piloto parou brevemente em frente ao Texas School Book Depository, onde Lumpkin falou com um policial que controlava o tráfego na esquina da Houston com a Elm.

Como Russ Baker aponta em Family of Secrets (2008), Crichton serviu como "o único comandante da unidade de inteligência ... até se aposentar do 488º em 1967".

Se Poppy Bush estava ocupado em 22 de novembro de 1963, seu amigo Jack Crichton também estava. O colega candidato republicano de Bush foi uma figura-chave em uma rede de figuras da inteligência militar com profundas conexões com o Departamento de Polícia de Dallas e, como observado anteriormente, com o carro-piloto da carreata de JFK.

Crichton voltou à cena horas após a morte de Kennedy e a subseqüente prisão de Lee Harvey Oswald, quando um peculiar cordão sanitário foi erguido em torno de Marina Oswald. O primeiro a seu lado foi o ativista republicano e presidente do distrito eleitoral Ilya Mamantov, um anticomunista vociferante que frequentemente fazia palestras em Dallas sobre os perigos da ameaça vermelha. Quando os investigadores chegaram, Mamantov interveio como intérprete e embelezou os comentários de Marina para estabelecer em termos inequívocos que o "esquerdista" Lee Harvey Oswald tinha sido o atirador - o único atirador - que matou o presidente.

É interessante, claro, que a polícia de Dallas deixasse um estranho - em particular, um emigrado russo de direita - cuidar da delicada tarefa de interpretação. Questionado pela Comissão Warren sobre como isso aconteceu, Mamantov disse ter recebido um telefonema do subchefe de polícia George Lumpkin. Depois de pensar um momento, Mamantov lembrou-se de que, pouco antes do telefonema de Lumpkin, ele ouvira de Jack Crichton. Foi Crichton quem colocou o Departamento de Polícia de Dallas junto com Mamantov e garantiu seu lugar ao lado de Marina Oswald neste momento crucial.

Apesar dessa revelação, Crichton escapou quase completamente de um exame minucioso. A Comissão Warren nunca o entrevistou. No entanto, tanto quanto qualquer pessoa, Crichton incorporou uma confluência de interesses dentro do nexo petróleo-inteligência-militar. E ele estava intimamente ligado a Poppy em seus esforços mútuos para promover o então pequeno Partido Republicano do Texas, culminando na aceitação das duas posições principais na chapa republicana do estado em 1964.

Durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, Crichton serviu no Office of Strategic Services, o predecessor da CIA. No pós-guerra, ele começou a trabalhar para a empresa do czar do petróleo Everette DeGolyer e logo se conectou aos círculos petromilitares dos mais altos escalões. Uma revisão de centenas de documentos corporativos e artigos de jornais mostra que, quando Crichton deixou a empresa DeGolyer no início dos anos 50, ele se envolveu em uma rede quase incompreensível de empresas com conselhos sobrepostos e laços com a DeGolyer. Muitos deles eram apoiados por algumas das famílias mais poderosas da América do Norte, incluindo os Du Ponts de Delaware e os Bronfmans, proprietários do gigante das bebidas alcoólicas Seagram.

Crichton estava tão ligado à estrutura de poder de Dallas que um dos diretores de sua empresa era Clint Murchison Sênior, rei da mesada para o esgotamento do petróleo, e outro era D. Harold Byrd, proprietário do edifício Texas School Book Depository.

Um exemplo típico desse clientelismo corporativo veio em 1952, quando Crichton fazia parte de um sindicato - incluindo Murchison, DeGolyer e os Du Ponts - que usava conexões no regime fascista de Franco para adquirir raros direitos de perfuração na Espanha. A operação foi administrada pela Delta Drilling, que pertencia a Joe Zeppa de Tyler, Texas - o homem que transportou Poppy Bush de Tyler para Dallas em 22 de novembro de 1963.

Foi em 1956 que Crichton, criado pelo bayou, iniciou sua própria unidade de espionagem, o 488º Destacamento de Inteligência Militar. Ele serviria como o único comandante da unidade de inteligência até 22 de novembro de 1963, continuando até se aposentar do 488º em 1967, quando foi condecorado com a Legião de Mérito e citado por "serviço excepcionalmente notável".

No final de novembro de 1959, James Noel, chefe da estação da CIA em Havana, se reuniu com seu colaborador mais próximo para analisar a evolução da situação política em Cuba. Ele havia recebido instruções do coronel King para preparar esta análise. Seus anos na Agência o ensinaram que quando seu chefe pedia pessoalmente um relatório, grandes questões estavam envolvidas e como ninguém podia nadar contra a corrente, ele tomava muito cuidado. Noel acreditava que ainda havia indivíduos no governo cubano que poderiam ser conquistados para a causa dos Estados Unidos; que nem tudo acabara com a captura de Huber Matos e seus associados; e que homens como Sori Marin tiveram influência definitiva. No entanto, ele sabia que deveria ser cauteloso ao expor suas opiniões, pois um erro poderia custar-lhe a carreira. Portanto, ele adotou uma posição dupla, dando a King o relatório que ele queria ouvir, enquanto ao mesmo tempo - com seus peões - continuava a jogar. O documento elaborado pelos especialistas da CIA concluía: “Fidel Castro, sob a influência de seus colaboradores mais próximos, em particular de seu irmão Raúl e Che Guevara, se converteu ao comunismo. Cuba se prepara para exportar sua revolução a outros países do hemisfério e difundir a guerra contra o capitalismo. "

Com essas palavras, eles pronunciaram a sentença de morte contra a Revolução Cubana. Dias depois, em 11 de dezembro, o Coronel King escreveu um memorando confidencial ao chefe da CIA afirmando que existia em Cuba uma "ditadura de extrema esquerda que, se mantida, encorajará ações semelhantes contra participações americanas em outros países latino-americanos. . "

King recomendou várias ações para resolver o problema cubano, uma das quais era considerar a eliminação de Fidel Castro. Afirmou que nenhum dos outros dirigentes cubanos "tem o mesmo apelo mesmérico para as massas. Muita gente informada acredita que o desaparecimento de Fidel aceleraria muito a queda do atual governo".

O diretor da CIA, Allen Dulles, transmitiu o memorando de King ao NSC alguns dias depois, e este aprovou a sugestão de formar um grupo de trabalho na Agência que, em um curto espaço de tempo, pudesse apresentar "soluções alternativas para o problema cubano. " Assim nasceu a "Operação 40", que leva o nome do Grupo Especial formado pelo NSC para acompanhar o caso cubano. O grupo era presidido por Richard Nixon e incluía o almirante Arleigh Burke, Livingston Merchant do Departamento de Estado, Conselheiro de Segurança Nacional Gordon Gray e Allen Dulles da CIA.

Tracy Barnes atuou como chefe da Força-Tarefa Cubana. Ele convocou uma reunião em 18 de janeiro de 1960, em seu escritório em Quarters Eyes, perto do Lincoln Memorial em Washington, que a Marinha havia emprestado enquanto novos prédios estavam sendo construídos em Langley. Entre os que se reuniram ali estavam o excêntrico Howard Hunt, futuro chefe da equipe de Watergate e escritor de romances policiais; o egocêntrico Frank Bender, amigo de Trujillo; Jack Esterline, que veio direto da Venezuela, onde dirigiu um grupo da CIA; especialista em guerra psicológica David A. Phillips e outros.

A equipe responsável pelos planos de derrubar o governo de Jacobo Arbenz na Guatemala em 1954 foi reconstituída e, na opinião de todos os seus membros, isso seria uma repetição do mesmo plano. Barnes falou longamente sobre os objetivos a serem alcançados. Explicou que o vice-presidente Richard Nixon era o "oficial do caso" cubano e havia reunido um importante grupo de empresários chefiados por George Bush [Snr.] E Jack Crichton, ambos petroleiros texanos, para reunir os fundos necessários à operação. Nixon era um protegido do pai de Bush, Preston, que em 1946 apoiou a candidatura de Nixon ao congresso. Na verdade, Preston Bush foi o estrategista de campanha que trouxe Eisenhower e Nixon à presidência dos Estados Unidos. Com tais clientes, Barnes tinha certeza de que o fracasso era impossível.


RAF Mildenhall

Royal Air Force Mildenhall ou RAF Mildenhall (IATA: MHZ, ICAO: EGUN) é uma estação da Royal Air Force (RAF) localizada perto de Mildenhall, em Suffolk, na Inglaterra. Apesar de seu status como uma estação da Força Aérea Real, ela apóia principalmente as operações da Força Aérea dos Estados Unidos (USAF) e atualmente é a casa da 100ª Asa de Reabastecimento Aéreo (100 ARW).

Durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, o Comando de Bombardeiros da RAF usou a estação para missões operacionais de combate até 1945. Colocada em estado de espera após a guerra, foi reaberta pela Força Aérea Real e tornou-se uma base de operação conjunta da USAF-RAF em 11 de julho de 1950. Atribuído para Comando Aéreo Estratégico (SAC) para posicionar bombardeiros B-29 Superfortress naquela data. Tornou-se uma base B-50 Superfortress em 1952, e uma base B-47 Stratojet e KC-97 Stratofreighter em 1953 até 1958. Fechado para reparos de pista ao longo de 1958, o Serviço de Transporte Aéreo Militar transferiu seu principal terminal do Reino Unido para Mildenhall da RAF Burtonwood em 1 de março de 1959 e o campo de aviação tornou-se 'The Gateway to the United Kingdom', para a maioria dos militares e dependentes dos EUA que chegaram ou partiram do Reino Unido desde então. Atribuído do Comando Aéreo Estratégico às Forças Aéreas dos Estados Unidos na Europa (USAFE) em 1 de setembro de 1959, e a RAF renunciou ao status de operações combinadas naquela data. Tem estado em operação contínua da USAFE até o momento.

Em 8 de janeiro de 2015, o Departamento de Defesa dos Estados Unidos anunciou que as operações na RAF Mildenhall seriam encerradas e realocadas para a Alemanha (Base Aérea de Spangdahlem) e em outras partes do Reino Unido. Após um período de incerteza, foi confirmado em julho de 2020 que a relocalização das operações deixaria de ocorrer.


JFKcountercoup

- Um ex-Conselheiro de Segurança Nacional do presidente é pego roubando documentos sob sua camisa, alguns de seus próprios registros do Arquivo II, onde a Coleção JFK é mantida.

Se a teoria do "modelo negativo" de Peter Dale Scott estiver correta, o que está faltando na história existente é mais significativo do que o que está no registro documental.

Como disse o pesquisador Malcolm Blunt: "É incrível que tenhamos sobrado alguma coisa. É doentio, apenas doentio, e uma vergonha, uma vergonha absoluta. O ARRB deveria ter pressionado essas pessoas a fazer uma busca adequada de todos os registros."

1. Oswald CIA Office of Security File Volume 5, visto pela última vez pelo House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA).

2. Arquivos do primeiro chefe do conselho para o HSCA Richard Sprague, que levou seus arquivos para casa quando foi demitido por conduzir uma investigação real. O Assassinations Records Review Board (ARRB), responsável por identificar e obter os registros, não os encontrou porque confundiu o advogado Richard Sprague com o programador de computador de mesmo nome, cujos extensos arquivos sobre o assassinato fazem parte da Coleção JFK. Os arquivos HSCA de Sprague, pagos por contribuintes que pertencem por direito aos Arquivos, estão atualmente no escritório de advocacia de Sprague na Filadélfia.

3. Os registros da KGB soviética sobre o tempo de Oswald em Moscou e Minsk, obtidos por Norman Mailer, estão agora na posse do ex-associado de Mailer, Lawrence Schiller, que se recusou a entregá-los à ARRB.

4. Fitas de transmissão de rádio AF1 não editadas de 22 de novembro de 1963. Duas versões editadas diferentes dessas fitas estão disponíveis, uma em fitas cassete lançadas pela Biblioteca LBJ e uma versão bobina a bobina descoberta entre os pertences pessoais do General Clifton. A White House Communications Agency (WHCA) é responsável por essas fitas. Como Vince Salandria apontou, havia uma transcrição das transmissões de rádio AF1 completas na Casa Branca de LBJ, onde dois repórteres - T. H. White e William Manchester foram autorizados a lê-la e citá-la. Eles recontam conversas que não estão em nenhuma das fitas existentes. Fontes possíveis - Biblioteca LBJ, Rádio Collins, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, WHCA - Dallas Sheraton, bunker da Defesa Civil de Dallas, Bases SAC, clube de rádio amador HAM, governos de Cuba, Canadá ou Austrália.

8. As entrevistas do Comitê da Igreja com Gerry Patrick Hemming, Orest Pena, funcionários do Serviço de Imigração e Naturalização e da Alfândega e outros testemunhos do Comitê da Igreja estão faltando.

9. Os registros da alfândega dos EUA sobre cubanos, especialmente por Cesar Diosadado, solicitados pelo HSCA eram tão volumosos que não podiam ser entregues ao HSCA, mas agora consistem em apenas alguns registros da National Archives and Records Administration (NARA).

10. A gravação da fita de áudio da entrevista de Gaeton Fonzi com Mitch Werbell foi apagada e a transcrição está faltando, apenas as anotações de Fonzi permanecem.

11. John Newman diz que os relatórios da era Eisenhower sobre assassinatos de líderes estrangeiros que ele copiou anos atrás agora estão faltando no NARA, e ele acredita que tais registros estão sendo deliberadamente roubados.

12. Bill Simpich diz que o cabo da Estação da Cidade do México (MCS) da CIA para a Sede de 26 a 30 de setembro de 1963 está faltando, bem como os cabos da CIA HQ para MCS, JMWAVE para HQ e HQ para o tráfego de cabo JMWAVE nas mesmas datas, e todo o tráfego de cabo entre MCS e JMWAVE entre 26 de setembro e 20 de outubro e 22 de novembro a 30 de dezembro de 1963 está faltando.

13. O estudo da CIA sobre a tentativa de 20 de julho de 1944 de matar Hitler para ser adaptado para uso contra Castro, conforme mencionado por Desmond FitzGerald em seu briefing de 23 de setembro de 1963 ao Estado-Maior Conjunto, é o assunto de um processo da FOIA por o Arquivo de Assassinatos e Centro de Pesquisa (AARC).

14. Escritório de Inteligência Naval - Arquivo ONI Defector, conforme identificado como um registro de assassinato pelo Tenente Com. Da Marinha. T. Pike, mas nunca entregue aos Arquivos.

15. Relatórios de investigação ONI 119 sobre a deserção e o assassinato de Oswald, a que se referem os investigadores da Marinha que os escreveram e os oficiais que os leram.

16. Os arquivos do assassinato do Diretor da ONI Rufus Taylor, cujo escritório contava com agentes secretos trabalhando no Carousel Club de Jack Ruby, instalando e mantendo a aparelhagem, que relatava, no único documento sobrevivente, que Oswald foi visto no clube.

17. James Mastrovito - o Agente do Serviço Secreto responsável pelos registros da SS sobre o assassinato reconheceu à ARRB que ele "selecionou" - destruiu muitos registros e jogou em um processador de alimentos um vil material rotulado "Cérebro de JFK - Instituto de Patologia das Forças Armadas , "sem repercussões.

18. O Serviço Secreto destruiu muitos registros, incluindo os Relatórios Antecipados para a viagem de Tampa depois que a Lei JFK foi aprovada pelo Congresso, embora cópias de alguns desses registros tenham sido encontradas entre os pertences pessoais do Agente Gerald Blaine, que escreveu o Relatório Antecipado de Tampa . Outros agentes também possuem cópias de registros oficiais entre seus pertences pessoais? Alguém está olhando?

19. O "Relatório Homme" de um subcomitê do Congresso supostamente contém informações sobre o conhecimento de Robert F. Kennedy e a aprovação dos planos da CIA para matar Fidel Castro.

20. O livro de datas de RFK para 1963 está faltando na Biblioteca Kennedy.

21. Quatro caixas de depoimentos de testemunhas entregues ao NARA em abril de 1965 pelo procurador dos EUA agora desaparecidos.

22. OSI - Análise da inteligência militar do Gabinete de Investigação Especial do arquivo do Departamento de Estado de Oswald está faltando.

23. Quando o ex-oficial da Marinha dos EUA Oliver Revill se juntou ao FBI, ele relatou uma investigação de Oswald e arquivos sobre ele em uma base da Marinha dos EUA na Carolina do Norte, registros que não estão em registro público.

24. O Escritório de Assessoria Jurídica do Departamento de Justiça teve documentos excluídos da Comissão Warren, de acordo com um memorando enviado ao arquivista Steve Tilly da ARRB e da NARA, "mais coisas perdidas na confusão", disse Malcolm Blunt.

25. A ARRB tentou obter os registros do tribunal de Oswald em Nova Orleans, mas foi informada de que eles foram destruídos acidentalmente quando enviados para microfilmagem.

26. Os arquivos da Inteligência do Exército em Oswald foram mantidos na Comissão Warren e depois destruídos "rotineiramente".

27. Em 1976, quando a equipe de contra-espionagem (CI) da CIA estava revisando os arquivos do assassinato de JFK, o Escritório de Segurança não entregou seus "arquivos secundários" em Oswald, também conhecidos como "arquivos de pesquisa", que não foram vistos pelo HSCA ou qualquer outro componente do A CIA, como diz Malcolm Blunt, "eles são como uma agência totalmente separada".

28. Larry Haapanen anotações, Registro de mensagens de entrada e saída da sala de situação da Casa Branca de 22/11/63-11 / 30/63 (o registro existente de novembro de 1963 termina abruptamente na manhã de 22/1163).

29. Registros das histórias e listas de unidades do 488º Destacamento de Inteligência Militar (Estratégica) (Contra-Inteligência), com base em Dallas, 1962-1963.

30. Registros de escuta telefônica do FBI de Oswald enquanto estava sob custódia policial, bem como grampos pós-assassinato de Ruth Paine e Michael Paine e telefones de Marina e Robert Oswald, conforme relatado pelo chefe de polícia de Irving, Paul Barger.

31. Registros da White House Communications Agency (WHCA) para 22/11/63, incluindo fita do canal de rádio de segurança da comitiva do Serviço Secreto que incluía Roy Kellerman falando quando o terceiro tiro foi disparado, e rádios no carro de LBJ, na cabine AF1 e na base WHCA estação no hotel Dallas Sheraton.

32. Os registros perdidos da Cidade do México incluem LILYRIC (registros fotográficos da embaixada soviética, setembro de '63) LIFEAT (registros de escuta telefônica, para todo o ano de 1963), resumos diários resumen de escuta telefônica para 1963 e registros retidos pelo ARRB a pedido da CIA e do FBI que podem ser lançado no despejo de dados de 26 de outubro de 2017.

33. Muitos registros relevantes do FBI 134 informantes estão faltando ou sendo retidos.

34. A fita de despacho do FBI com ligações de Dallas para 22/11/63 está faltando.

35. O relatório do National Photo Interpretation Center (NPIC) sobre o estudo do filme Zapruder e o briefing de Art Lundal com o diretor da CIA John McCone está desaparecido, embora McCone tenha dito a RFK que a CIA disse que havia dois homens armados.

36. Os registros JMWAVE NPIC e outros registros de assassinato NPIC foram, de acordo com um secretário do NPIC, encaixotados e por ordem de Robert Kennedy enviados para o Instituto Smithsonian em vez do NARA.


Esquerda do Espelho

Da rede confusa de conexões suspeitas dos envolvidos no assassinato de Kennedy surgiram alguns fatos estimulantes sobre algumas pessoas muito públicas - pessoas que, ao que parece, têm relações desagradáveis ​​com a inteligência. William F. Buckley foi uma dessas pessoas. Bill trabalhou para E. Howard Hunt, ativo secreto da CIA e mentor de Watergate, na década de 1950 antes de usar a riqueza de sua família para iniciar a National Review e uma organização neofascista chamada Young Americans for Freedom. Grande parte da riqueza da família Buckley vinha de sua empresa de petróleo, Pantipec Oil. O presidente da Pantipec Oil era Warren Smith. Dois homens que trabalhavam para Smith na Pantipec eram agentes contratuais da CIA, George deMohrenschildt e Jack Crichton. DeMohrenschildt, identificado como o melhor amigo de Lee Harvey Oswald em Dallas pela Comissão Warren, era um violento geólogo anticomunista / petrolífero que orientou Oswald na comunidade russa direita de Dallas. Crichton fez parte do conselho da Dorchester Gas com um homem chamado D.H. Byrd. Tanto Byrd quanto Crichton eram odiadores descarados de Kennedy. Byrd, proprietário do Texas School Book Depository, amigo próximo dos milionários do petróleo do Texas e de LBJ, e fundador da Patrulha Aérea Civil, fez fortuna com a Guerra do Vietnã após o assassinato de JFK. A LBJ deu início à Guerra do Vietnã de verdade, e Ling-Temco-Vought, de Byrd, conseguiu um grande contrato de defesa para a construção de caças.

De todos os personagens sinistros desta teia, talvez o mais suspeito seja Jack Crichton. Crichton trabalhou para o OSS, o precursor da CIA, na década de 1940. Na década de 1950, ele iniciou sua própria unidade de espionagem, o 488º destacamento de inteligência militar, em Dallas. Quando a CIA começou a planejar a operação da Baía dos Porcos em 1960, veio a Crichton e Poppy Bush para liderar o financiamento para a operação. Crichton e Bush foram parceiros e amigos íntimos durante anos. Em seu livro, Família dos segredos: a dinastia Bush, o governo invisível da América e a história oculta dos últimos cinquenta anos, o autor Russ Baker escreve: "Em suas memórias, o ex-oficial da inteligência cubana Fabian Escalante afirmou que. um importante grupo de empresários do Texas. chefiado por George H.W. Bush e Jack Crichton. [foi contatado] para providenciar financiamento externo para a operação." Quando a invasão da Baía dos Porcos falhou, a CIA e seus apoiadores ficaram furiosos com Kennedy.

Além disso, em 22 de novembro de 1963, Crichton enviou um de seus agentes da 488ª unidade de inteligência militar para "interpretar" as declarações de Marina Oswald para a Polícia de Dallas. Baker escreve: ". [As] traduções. Estavam longe de serem traduções literais de suas palavras em russo e tiveram o efeito de implicar seu marido [Lee Harvey Oswald] na morte de Kennedy."


Conteúdo

  • 501ª Ala de Apoio de Combate (USAFE)
  • 352º Grupo de Operações Especiais (AFSOC)
  • 95º Esquadrão de Reconhecimento (ACC)
    Parte da 55ª Ala, 55º Grupo de Operações, Base Aérea Offutt, Nebraska
  • 488º Esquadrão de Inteligência (ACC)
    Parte da 55ª Ala, 55ª Ala de Inteligência do Grupo de Operações, Base da Força Aérea Offutt, Nebraska
  • 727º Esquadrão de Mobilidade Aérea (AMC)
    Parte do 721º Grupo de Operações de Mobilidade Aérea, Base Aérea de Ramstein, Alemanha
  • Fleet Industrial Supply Center Mildenhall (COMUSNAVEUR)

RAF Mildenhall e sua base irmã RAF Lakenheath têm a maior presença da Força Aérea dos Estados Unidos no Reino Unido.

100ª Asa de Reabastecimento Aéreo [editar | editar fonte]

A unidade anfitriã em Mildenhall é a 100ª Asa de Reabastecimento Aéreo (100 ARW), que distribui aeronaves e gerencia a Força-Tarefa de Tanques Europeus, uma força rotativa que fornece reabastecimento aéreo para aeronaves dos EUA e da OTAN no Teatro Europeu. É a única ala de reabastecimento aéreo permanente da USAF no teatro europeu, ativada na RAF Mildenhall em 1 de fevereiro de 1992. A ala fornece a "ponte" crítica de reabastecimento aéreo que permite à Força Aérea Expedicionária se desdobrar ao redor do globo em um piscar de olhos.

O componente tático do 100 ARW é o 351º Esquadrão de Reabastecimento Aéreo (351 ARS), pilotando o Boeing KC-135R Stratotanker.

501ª Asa de Apoio de Combate [editar | editar fonte]

A 501ª Ala de Apoio de Combate foi ativada na RAF Mildenhall em 21 de maio de 2005. É uma unidade não voadora que fornece administração e operação de várias unidades menores da Força Aérea espalhadas pelo Reino Unido que são consideradas Unidades Geograficamente Separadas (GSU):

352º Grupo de Operações Especiais [editar | editar fonte]

O 352 SOG é o componente da Força Aérea do Comando de Operações Especiais da Europa, um comando subunificado do Comando Europeu dos EUA. Foi transferida para a RAF Mildenhall em 17 de fevereiro de 1995 da RAF Alconbury. O 352 SOG tem dois esquadrões de vôo, um esquadrão de manutenção, um esquadrão de suporte de operações e um esquadrão de táticas especiais.

A missão do 352 SOG é servir como ponto focal para todas as atividades de operações especiais da Força Aérea dos EUA em todo o teatro europeu, incluindo a África e o Oriente Médio. O 352 SOG está preparado para conduzir uma variedade de missões de alta prioridade e baixa visibilidade apoiando as forças de operações especiais dos EUA e aliadas em todo o teatro europeu durante tempos de paz, exercícios de operações combinadas e operações de combate.

O 352º desenvolve e implementa planos de contingência para tempos de paz e de guerra. Usa efetivamente os ativos de asa fixa e pessoal na infiltração, exfiltração e reabastecimento das forças de operações especiais dos EUA e aliadas.

Os componentes táticos do 352º SOG são:

    (Aeronave MC-130 Talon II) (aeronave MC-130P Combat Shadow)
  • 352º Esquadrão de Apoio a Operações Especiais
  • 352º Esquadrão de Manutenção de Operações Especiais
  • Componente Aéreo de Operações Especiais Conjuntas - Europa (JSOAC-E)

95º Esquadrão de Reconhecimento [editar | editar fonte]

O 95º Esquadrão de Reconhecimento conduz operações de voo RC-135 Rivet Joint nos teatros de operações europeu e mediterrâneo, conforme incumbido pelas Autoridades de Comando Nacional e pelo Comando Europeu. Foi ativado na RAF Mildenhall em 1 de julho de 1994, tendo sido anteriormente atribuído à RAF Alconbury.

O esquadrão fornece gerenciamento operacional, manutenção de aeronaves, administração e suporte de inteligência para produzir dados de inteligência em tempo real politicamente sensíveis, vitais para a política externa nacional.

O 95 RS suporta as missões RC-135, OC-135 e E-4 quando implantado no teatro.

488º Esquadrão de Inteligência [editar | editar fonte]

O 488º Esquadrão de Inteligência, um componente da Agência de Inteligência, Vigilância e Reconhecimento da Força Aérea, anteriormente conhecida como Agência de Inteligência Aérea. Sua missão é fornecer produtos, aplicativos, serviços e recursos de inteligência de várias fontes. Também fornece forças de IO e experiência nas áreas de guerra de informação, guerra de comando e controle, segurança, aquisição, sistemas e tecnologia de armas estrangeiras,

Também atribuído administrativamente ao 488º Esquadrão de Inteligência é o Local de Operação da Baía de Souda, Creta.

O atual 488º Esquadrão de Inteligência traça sua linhagem até o 6954º Esquadrão de Segurança, que foi originalmente designado Destacamento 1 do 6985º Esquadrão de Segurança em RAF Upper Heyford, Inglaterra, em junho de 1967. A unidade mudou-se para RAF Mildenhall, Inglaterra, em agosto de 1970. Em 1974, o Destacamento 1 do 6985º Esquadrão de Segurança foi designado como o 6954º Esquadrão de Segurança.

Em agosto de 1979, o 6954º Esquadrão de Segurança foi designado como o 6954º Esquadrão de Segurança Eletrônica para coincidir com a designação do Serviço de Segurança da Força Aérea dos Estados Unidos como Comando de Segurança Eletrônica. Em novembro de 1990, com a inativação do 6916º Esquadrão de Segurança Eletrônica, Base Aérea de Hellenikon, Grécia, o esquadrão assumiu a responsabilidade por todo o apoio do Comando de Segurança Eletrônica RC-135 ao Comando Europeu dos Estados Unidos. De outubro de 1990 a março de 1991, o esquadrão conduziu operações de OL-RH, 6988º Esquadrão de Segurança Eletrônica, Hellenikon AB, Grécia.

Em outubro de 1991, o 6988º Esquadrão de Segurança Eletrônica estava subordinado ao Comando de Inteligência da Força Aérea.

Em 1 de outubro de 1993, o 6988º Esquadrão de Segurança Eletrônica foi designado 488º Esquadrão de Inteligência como parte da reestruturação em curso da Inteligência da Força Aérea e do Comando de Inteligência da Força Aérea como uma agência operacional de campo. O 488º Esquadrão de Inteligência está sob o controle administrativo desta agência operacional de campo, que foi designada Agência de Inteligência Aérea em 1º de outubro de 1993.

Em 1 de fevereiro de 2001, a Agência de Inteligência Aérea foi realinhada sob a Oitava Força Aérea na Base Aérea Barksdale, Louisiana. Este realinhamento colocou a Agência de Inteligência Aérea sob o Comando de Combate Aéreo. Na paz e na guerra, o 488º Esquadrão de Inteligência ganhou nove prêmios de Unidade de Destaque da Força Aérea.

Em 1 de outubro de 2002, o 488º foi realinhado da 67ª Ala de Operações de Informação para a 55ª Ala. O realinhamento colocou todos os recursos do RC-135 sob uma asa, reforçando a importância do nariz à cauda deste sistema de armas.

727º Esquadrão de Mobilidade Aérea [editar | editar fonte]

O 727º Esquadrão de Mobilidade Aérea é uma unidade do 721º Grupo de Operações de Mobilidade Aérea, com sede em Ramstein AB, Alemanha.

O 727 AMS é parte do sistema de rota da AMC que fornece manutenção fixa e desdobrada, porto aéreo e suporte de comando e controle para forças de comando desdobradas em todo o mundo. O esquadrão conta com todo o suporte necessário, como serviço de frota, manutenção e atendimento de passageiros para permitir que aeronaves e tripulações partam rapidamente para o próximo destino ou pernoitem para descanso da tripulação.

O esquadrão foi redesignado como 727 AMS em 15 de março de 2001. Antes disso, foi designado como 627º Esquadrão de Apoio à Mobilidade Aérea atribuído ao 621º Grupo de Apoio à Mobilidade Aérea. A mudança na designação foi realizada para refletir melhor a natureza operacional da missão geral do grupo como operacional, em vez de de suporte.

Centro de Abastecimento Industrial de Frota Sigonella, Destacamento Mildenhall [editar | editar fonte]

Beech C-45 Expediter e Douglas C-117D Super Dakota aeronaves de comunicação da NAF Mildenhall em sua base em 1966

FISCSI Mildenhall é um Destacamento da Marinha do Centro de Abastecimento Industrial de Frota de Sigonella, Itália. O destacamento era originalmente um comando de aviação conhecido como Naval Air Facility Mildenhall, apoiando o Comandante, quartel-general das Forças Navais dos EUA na Europa (COMUSNAVEUR) em Londres. Como NAF Mildenhall, o comando era o lar de três aeronaves Huron da Marinha UC-12 e fornecia suporte para aeronaves transitórias da Marinha dos EUA e do Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais dos EUA. Com a queda da União Soviética, a frequência de aeronaves navais dos EUA em trânsito pela RAF Mildenhall desapareceu e, com a subsequente realocação do COMUSNAVEUR para Nápoles, Itália, as aeronaves UC-12 do comando também foram reatribuídas. Depois de estar na RAF Mildenhall por mais de 40 anos, a NAF Mildenhall foi desativada em 2005, reduzida e então restabelecida como FISCSI Det Mildenhall. A missão do FISCSI Det Mildenhall é o apoio à frota da Marinha dos EUA no Reino Unido e no norte da Europa. O suporte inclui o recebimento e envio de peças de alta prioridade e correio para as unidades navais dos EUA dentro daquela área. & # 911 e # 93


Inteligência é importante

Critchton foi nomeado chefe do componente de inteligência da Defesa Civil de Dallas. O comentarista conservador de rádio Paul Harvey escreveu em setembro de 1960: "Os comunistas, desde 1917, venderam o comunismo a mais pessoas do que foram contadas sobre Cristo após 2.000 anos." Ele exortou seus leitores a apoiarem o "contra-ataque ... montado em Dallas". [3]

Em 1961, Crichton juntou-se a outros conservadores de Dallas para estabelecer o programa "Know Your Enemy", que visava combater a influência comunista que "estava minando o estilo de vida americano". Em 1962, Crichton abriu um posto de comando sob o pátio do Dallas Health and Science Museum com o objetivo de manter a continuidade do governo onde os Estados Unidos fossem atacados. [3]

Em novembro de 1963, Crichton esteve envolvido nos preparativos para a visita fatal do presidente dos Estados Unidos John F. Kennedy a Dallas. O amigo de Crichton, o subchefe de polícia George L. Lumpkin, membro do 488º Destacamento de Inteligência Militar, dirigia o carro-piloto da carreata de Kennedy. O tenente-coronel George Whitmeyer, comandante da Reserva do Exército do Leste do Texas, também estava no carro. O carro-piloto parou brevemente em frente ao Texas School Book Depository, onde Lumpkin falou com um policial que controlava o tráfego na esquina das ruas Houston e Elm.

No momento do assassinato do presidente Kennedy e do ferimento do governador Connally, Crichton estava participando do almoço anual realizado naquele ano no Adolphus Hotel na Commerce Street em Dallas na sexta-feira antes do Dia de Ação de Graças para homenagear os times de futebol do TAMU e da Universidade do Texas , who meet on the gridiron annually on the Friday after Thanksgiving. Crichton recalls:​


The Army Lieutenant Who Had a Price on His Head in Vietnam

Mandel was an intelligence officer who gathered information from a variety of sources to pinpoint the location of enemy forces. But spies on the other side learned his identity, which made the young American a marked man.

After graduating from Rutgers University, Mandel enlisted in the Army in April 1966 and went to Officer Candidate School at Fort Benning, Georgia. Once he received his commission, he was assigned to military intelligence and attended the Defense Language School in Monterey, California, to study Vietnamese dialects.

Mandel arrived at Tan Son Nhut air base, on the northern edge of Saigon, on Jan. 30, 1968—just as the communists were beginning their Tet Offensive throughout South Vietnam.

He served with the 219th Military Intelligence Detachment of II Field Force, the headquarters organization for U.S. units operating in Saigon and other southern areas of South Vietnam. The headquarters was at Bien Hoa, a major U.S. base about 20 miles northeast of Saigon.

In an interview with Vietnã magazine Research Director Jon Guttman, Mandel described the peculiar “seesaw” shadow war he waged with the enemy.

How did you get the intelligence-gathering assignment? I trained to be an infantry officer at Fort Benning. While there, I had the choice to go next to jump school or language school. Earlier in my life, I had studied German, two years in high school, Spanish, two years in college, and ancient Greek, three years in college. Someone identified me as language-capable. My TAC [training, advising and counseling] officer encouraged me to select language school. I studied North Vietnamese. After language school, I went to Fort Holabird in Baltimore [for Army intelligence school].

You studied North Vietnamese, rather than just Vietnamese in general? Vietnam has its various dialects and there was a definite difference between North and South. It was extremely useful for listening in on North Vietnamese Army communications or interrogating POWs, but when speaking to anyone else, it seemed like a Bostonian being in Birmingham, Alabama. When I was in-country, there were 20 GIs working for me, all language-qualified, mostly in the South Vietnamese dialect.

What were your initial duties when you got to Vietnam just as the Tet Offensive was raging? After I checked in at Bien Hoa, I was assigned to Hurricane Forward, a temporary task force set up in Saigon to counter the Viet Cong offensive in Cholon [a section of the city that was home to many Vietnamese of Chinese descent]. I was in Saigon from the first week of February until the end of March.

What did you do after Hurricane Forward? I was assigned to IPW [interrogation of prisoners of war] at Bien Hoa. Later in the year I was assigned to the headquarters staff, in the G-2 [the military designation for intelligence staff] department, in G-2 Targeting [a unit that gathered information on the whereabouts of the Viet Cong’s upper echelon so they could be targeted for U.S. attacks].

Who were your commanders and what was your area of operations? At G-2 Targeting, I served briefly with Capt. John Uecke, who rotated home. II Field Force was commanded by Maj. Gen. Walter T. Kerwin. Our area of operation covered a 100-mile radius of Saigon and included two war zones, C and D [two areas near Saigon with heavy concentrations of VC guerilla fighters]. By day the Americans were in those areas, but they’d be pulled back after dark.

How did you obtain information on VC locations? The Order of Battle section [which kept records on the size and composition of enemy units] collected information on enemy movements in our area. The information came from a variety of sources, including prisoners of war, sightings by friendly Vietnamese, the Signal Corps [which intercepted enemy radio transmissions] and sniffer missions. We’d record the data on index cards, and several GIs would continuously analyze that information to find correlations that could provide the intelligence to authorize Air Force strikes.

What were sniffer missions? Developed by General Electric, sniffer was a chemical detection system based on the fact that the human body gives off ammonia that can be detected. Sniffer devices were made to be carried in an infantryman’s backpack or by airborne means. We carried sniffer equipment on a UH-1 [Huey helicopter]. The devices looked like microphones and were attached to the helicopter’s skids to detect ammonia content in the air at treetop level. A chemical officer managed it in the passenger section of the helicopter, where a G-2 Targeting member also rode. The sniffer system didn’t work all that well, though. Once the VC learned of it, they would take a bucket of urine and hang it in trees, so we’d bomb where those buckets were, instead of where the enemy really was. Sniffer was effective, however, in disrupting supply routes and activities. The enemy constantly had to move around.

Did you operate primarily in the field or back at the base? I operated in the field. When I was at G-2 Targeting at the II Field Force base, I worked inside a concrete bunker. The smell of fresh cement permeated the area. The smell of the concrete drove me crazy. So to get away from it, I’d fly out several times a week on sniffer flights. Three helicopters assigned to II Field Force took off, one with the chemical officer, and two gunships in support. There would be ammonia readings and sound detection readings that required correlation. Às 4 da tarde. we’d brief the commanding general to authorize a B-52 strike. We’d relay the coordinates of enemy gatherings to [Andersen Air Force Base at] Guam, which would send B-52 flights, dispatched as early as dinner time. When we sent in the planes, it was my understanding that 500- to 1,000-pound bombs were used. After a B-52 attack, infantry would go in and do a battle damage assessment.

Was there any target in particular that you sought? One thing we searched for was the headquarters of the NVA/VC’s COSVN, or Central Office of South Vietnam, which was said to be in an 18-wheeler truck that moved daily and had a portable radio tower. During the rainy season, the LRRPs [long-range reconnaissance patrols] looked for tracks. We never did find it—the whole thing turned out to be a myth.

Did the enemy catch on to what you were doing? I am sure the enemy knew what we were doing. I think they knew me and others as intelligence officers in the 219th MID. We used day-workers in the unit to do washing, cleaning, etc. Washing our clothes, they saw our names and designations. They also observed where we went. In February 1969, we participated in Operation Bowie Winter, Col. George S. Patton’s [son of the World War II general] armored operation near the Michelin rubber plantation [about 45 miles northwest of Saigon]. In one bunker, they found an index card with my name and a 200 piastre bounty on my head.

That must have left you a bit unnerved. I was unnerved. But in a way I was a bit chagrined that the price on my head [a small amount in U.S. dollars] was so low. What really scared me once was a captured picture of a sniffer helicopter taken by a VC or NVA photographer. It showed the two gunships and one helicopter with detection equipment. At that altitude, they could easily have shot it down.

How were you able to avoid possible groundfire while still carrying out your mission? We would fly the grids, then go in from another direction to confirm the grid. You were asking for trouble if you didn’t. One day a colleague came back shot through the calf because he flew in the same direction twice and was wounded. We also called in “one drop bombers,” called Sky Spot. This involved one plane, one bomb—usually a jet fighter. We also reconnoitered the Dong Nai River for supply movements. Once we found a sampan garage, hidden under the foliage—a place to rest during the day and not to be caught.

Did you have any close calls? Once, when I flew a sniffer mission. Somebody [in the Viet Cong] had put a Claymore mine up in a tree. The VC identified the lead helicopter and manually detonated the mine. Fortunately for us, there was 1 inch of steel under that Huey. The pilot was excellent. He got control of the helicopter, pulled out before pancaking in the treetops and managed to bring us home. After seeing the ball bearing dents, I wondered why I ever left the safety of my office bunker.

Did you have any other unusual experiences? One time the co-pilot of the UH-1 had a new movie camera. From the chopper he photographed a Vietnamese boy who started wildly waving his hands because we were driving his water buffalo in all directions.

Did you also go on ground operations? sim. In one instance we were in three jeeps with 155 mm recoilless rifles. We also carried three cartons of menthol Salem cigarettes for the “White Mice” [South Vietnamese police] for trading. In this instance we took small arms fire, and the jeeps fanned out on an embankment to return fire. I said, “Stop, stop,” but somebody smarter than I had a better suggestion: Didi mau—“keep moving faster!”

What did your unit do if it got any downtime? Back at the base camp, on Sundays we barbecued steak and chicken and drank beer purchased from the PX. We’d have a group barbecue on Sundays on a grill made from a 55-gallon drum. We also would trade war trophies [with the South Vietnamese] for whatever others items we needed [for the barbecue]. We got hold of some enemy SKS carbines, which we would trade for steak and chicken.

Were you decorated for your service? I received a Bronze Star from the U.S. government the Cross of Gallantry from the South Vietnamese government.

Nascer: April 1, 1944, Newark, New Jersey

Residence: Ashburn, Virginia

Educação: Rutgers University, bachelor’s degree, 1966 Rutgers Business School, MBA, 1971

Military service: U.S. Army, April 1966-April 1969 highest rank: first lieutenant

In Vietnam: January 1968-March 1969 219th Military Intelligence Detachment

Professional career: Sales and management positions in technology businesses, 1971-2015

This article appeared in Vietnã magazine’s August 2018 issue.


488th Military Intelligence Detachment - History

I was stationed in the Grosse Reiter Kaserne (Wallace Barracks) from Dec 1954 to May 1956.

The unit was listed at the time as 7807 USAREUR Detachment but was actually headquarters for the 66th CIC Group.

(Looking at the aerial photo) after you enter the front gate and proceed straight ahead the large building on the left contained the mess hall, the EM club and the library. If you then proceed to the next street and take a right and follow that street for 20/30 feet or so on your left that building was a basketball court and gym.

When I arrived in Stuttgart, in late 1959, I was assigned to a numbered USAREUR Liaison Group , the classified cover designation of the 66th CIC Group .

I was a CPL E4 when I arrived, and was a 1LT when I departed some four years later. All of my service there was in the USAREUR Central Registry (CR), in the Grosse Reiter Kaserne (GRK) (later renamed Wallace Barracks), in Bad Cannstatt/Stuttgart. It was a very interesting assignment.

The CR was composed of divisions/branches, organized around the Central Personality Index (CPI) that consisted of some 5-6 million 5" by 8" cards that indexed all the data in all the files in paper and microfilm that CR maintained. When I arrived, most of the data were in paper files (dossiers), but the CR was engaged in a microfilming project that reduced the paper files to microfilm.

The CPI of the CR was composed of cards from several sources. CPI maintained all cards in alphabetical order, and was composed of a large quantity of GESTAPO files, collected as the German armies was pushed back into native Germany. Personalities who came under attention of CIC Agents were reported to CR, and references were created to the data sent to CR for file.

One small note about CR, during the Cold War, we had to maintain the capability to evacuate all of CR, which included several hundred cabinets of paper files (dossiers) and CPI cards. Many hours were spent trying to move cabinets of files and cards down the stairs (from the 3rd floor) of GRK. Later, the CR was relocated to the first floor of the main building. This move substantially improved the ability to evacuate the massive amounts of data.

The CPI was manned by females who were wives and children of the male servicemen, and some civilians living in Germany at the time. We trained them to make "lookups" in the files, having to look in numerous places due to various spelling of Germanic and other European names.

During my assignment in CR, IBM was invited to study our data, files, references, etc., and offer a plan to automate the Registry. They completed the study, made their recommendations, and saw their proposals fall on deaf ears. The Army would not spend money to automate our Registry while the Central Records Facility (CRF), located at Ft Holabird MD, was still a manual operation. CRF was the final home of all data that flowed into CR.

During my last year in CR, I proposed that we code CPI, so that it would be easier and more accurate to perform "lookups". This proposal was approved, and we began the conversion with the smallest letter of the alphabet, "y" I believe. Before I left, we had converted all cards in four letters. I visited the CR several years later, and learned that they had completed the conversion. The CPI was able to produce far more work with less people after the conversion.

CR and CPI processed requests for information from all the allied intelligence agencies in the USAREUR area. We had a backlog at one time, and made a one-time push to reduce the backlog. In this special push, we were able to process more that 44,000 requests for information. We were not able to maintain the rate, but with the advent of the conversion to the modified Soundex code, better and faster intelligence reports were possible from the data in CR.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION


Annotated installation map for Wallace Barracks, 1950s & early 1960s
(Click on image to view building use schedule. Additional input needed. )

I was in the CIC back in the 1950's. After finishing Language school, I was assigned to the Liaison Group in Offenbach, Germany but after a couple of weeks, I was reassigned to Bad Cannstatt to study German at the 66th Headquarters.

Comments on some of the buildings at Wallace Barracks during that period:
Two things to keep in mind. The CIC was effectively dismantled in 1967 with its duties parceled out to other agencies and commands, so these plans and photos, made in 1973, do not quite represent the kaserne as it existed in the 1950's and 1960's. For instance the complex made up of 4323/4324/4325/4327 and 4320/4321/4322 have been added since then.

Second: while C.J. remembers the very large area behind 4307 and 4308 as a very large motor pool, he does not make any comment about the other buildings 4310/4311/4315/4316) and I tend to think that the post was a multipurpose post, with those buildings being under a separate command.

I think, at the time, the area defined by 4300 around to 4307 and 4308 pretty much was the 66th area.

4300: When you went into 4300 by the door across from the library (Bdlg 4301), you went into the EM Club.

When you walked through the club or came in the far door you were in the mess hall. Neither C.J nor I remember the jutting out portion of the building and perhaps that was a later expansion of the mess hall to facilitate a larger number of people. I do seem to remember a very small area of the mess hall being a place to buy toiletries and etc. but C. J. says that the PX and the movie theater were in a complex a couple of miles up the hill from Wallace. I think he was referring to Robinson Barracks area.

4301: A small portion of this building (neither of us can remember if it was upstairs or down stairs) was the post library, with a very nice young lady named &ldquoElsa&rdquo as the librarian. The remainder of the building was occupied by the local CIC field office. I was in the library often but only in the field office one time. Having just graduated from the Army Language School where I studied Polish, I and a classmate were asked to help translate a letter in Polish.

4303: according to C.J., this building was rumored to have been the CIA, so I am assuming it was off limits to everyone else.

4304: was the 66th CIC Headquarters building. C.J. says that among other things there were various offices, a Microfilm Library and, in the basement, was a snack bar and the post office.

4305: Now, the rest of the buildings on post were off limits to me with the exception of 4305, which was the enlisted men's barracks, with a laundry, dry cleaners and barber shop in the basement. The very far end of the building there was a large room. The front part of which was used as billets for temporary personnel coming and going from and to other posts. The end portion of the room was closed off by metal lockers and that is where the students of the German class were billeted.

4307: According to C.J., who had a lot of experience with the transportation functions, 4307 was the Motor Pool Office, Service and repair area. I never knew what was in most of the building but the very far right end of it was a couple of class rooms for training. The German class that I attended was at the end of it.

4308: C.J. seems to think that 4308 contained a handball court or says that it was in that general area. So perhaps that was a gymnasium set-up. As I said, I was only there six months and that was in intense eight hour days of studying German. So, I really did not get exposed to that part of the post.

It is a little confusing about the officer's quarters. C.J. had to drive off post to pick-up and transport officers from a off-post site to bring them back to Wallace for the monthly alert exercise but that might have been for the married officers. If there were on post a BOQ and mess, I do not know and neither does C.J. It is possible that they were billeted at Robinson Barracks

That just about wraps up our knowledge but I think it pretty much pin points things as they were in the 50's and 60's. If you have any questions, however. Feel free to ask them. It may juggle our memories even more.

Both C.J. and I have actually enjoyed this little journey back to Bad Cannstatt.

I was stationed with the 66th INTC Group at the Grosse Reiter - Wallace Barracks and was an Intelligence Coordinator, assigned to work with coordinating and analyzing filed reports from most of the US Army commands along the East German border. Several of us, who were trained at Fort Holabird during the Cuban Missile crisis were assigned to the 66th or the 513th in Frankfurt (Oberursel).

I arrived in January, 1963, via troop ship to Bremerhaven and then transported to Stuttgart/BadCanstadt for assignment. Upon arrival and shown our billets, it was apparent that the Kasserne needed some updating. The shower room window was broken and ice and snow covered the floor. Not a pleasant arrival experience.

This was an ideal location to be able to catch the Strassenbahn to downtown Stuttgart and it was an easy drive to Munich and Nuernberg. We were restricted from travel to Berlin at that time. as well as to Albania. primarily for security reasons.

I was in Bad Cannstadt until April 1965, when I was assigned to the 527th MI Company in Kaiserslautern, working to support field operations.

In June I rotated CONUS as an E-5.

I would be interested in hearing from anyone stationed there during that period. Larry Thrall, Carlos Vannicola, Dal Lane, George Daily, etc.

The 66th CIC Detachment did not remain long at Camp Rucker. On Nov. 23, 1944, the unit departed for the New York Port of Embarkation at Camp Shanks, New York for overseas shipment. The unit shipped out for England aboard the "Brittanic" arriving in Southampton on Dec. 12, 1944. After a short period of training, the 66th CIC Detachment arrived in France on Dec. 27, 1944. Once in France, the 66th Infantry Division came under the control of the 12th Army Group. The mission of the 66th Infantry Division was to contain the enemy near the St. Nazaire and Lorient pockets. Refugees in these areas needed thorough screening, and food and shelter. The 66th CIC Detachment served in France and Germany until the end of hostilities. After a brief tour of occupation duty the unit departed for Marseilles, France in June 1945. The 66th Infantry Division was assigned the task of guarding the staging areas while troops returned to the United States. Finally, the 66th CIC Detachment departed France aboard the "USS Exchange" for the United States on Oct. 30, 1945. The unit arrived at the NYPE on Nov. 10, 1945 and was inactivated at Camp Kilmer, New Jersey two days later. The 66th GIG Detachment is credited with participation in the Northern France campaign during World War II.

In December 1955, the 66th Group was temporarily designated as the 7945th USAREUR Liaison Group which later became the U.S. Army Liaison Group Europe which was deactivated in January 1960. The 66th Group was never really redesignated. In May 1956, the 66th Group was further reduced from 7 Regions to 4. In January 1958, the 4 Regions became Detachments A, B, C, and D.

In November 1959, USAREUR divided the counterintelligence and field operations intelligence/area intelligence missions on a geographical basis between the 66th Group and the 513th MI Group. The 513th Group had the area of northern Germany including Berlin and the 66th had the southern area of Germany. In January 1960, the 66th reorganized and redesignated as the 66th Military Intelligence Group. In July 1961, the 66th MI Group was redesignated the 66th Intelligence Corps Group. The 66th was again designated the 66th Military Intelligence Group which remained assigned to U.S. Army, Europe and Seventh Army.

Due to reorganizations and consolidation of intelligence resources in Europe, the 66th was relocated from Stuttgart to Munich in September 1968. Between 1968 and 1969, the 66th took over the personnel and missions from the 513th MI Group. The formal inactivation of the 513th took place on June 25, 1969 at Munich. The 66th took over the facilities formerly held by the 513th in Munich.

The 66th MI Group was relieved from assignment to U.S. Army, Europe and Seventh Army and was assigned to U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command in February 1977, as part of a worldwide reorganization of Army Intelligence resources.

Headquarters, 66th MI Group is currently located on McGraw Kaserne in Munich. Elements of the 66th MI Group are located in 63 cities in eight European countries.

Region XII relocated from Augsburg to Kaiserslautern following the Peace Treaty and assumed responsibility for Rheinland-Pfalz (formerly a part of the French Occupational Zone). The five regions were subsequently re-designated Field Stations (with the same numbers) until July 1962 when they became, respectively, the 6th, 165th, 503rd, 511th and 527th MI Companies. Later transfer of the 6th MI Company to Fort Meade, Md., and inactivation of the 503rd MI Company left the three that today carry "battalion" designations.

Another present group unit which historically descends from the old region structure is the 766th MI Detachment. In the early 1950s, Region IX (Bremen) relocated to Orleans, France, and assumed support for Headquarters USAREUR COM-Z. Its former AOR was absorbed by Region X (Bad Wildungen). Region IX was later redesignated the 766th CIC (later MI) Detachment and returned to Germany when USAREUR COM-Z was disestablished in 1966.


488th Military Intelligence Detachment - History

& quotBattles They Supplied"

188th History 189th History 190th History 191st History

The 488th Port Battalion was activated December 12, 1942 at Fort Indiantown Gap, Annville, Pennsylvania. It consisted of Headquarters Company and four companies A, B, C, and D. These were later changed to the 188th, 189th, 190th and 191st Port Companies. The original Battalion Commander was Major Wesley White who was replaced by Major William Clemente. Officer personnel came from various training facilities, and enlisted personnel were sought who had any experience in crane operating, stevedoring, longshoring, operating tugs and barges, and any civilian occupation related to port operations.

After three months of intensive training at the Gap, mostly on a mock up ship affectionately called the SS Neversail, the 488th moved by train to Camp Miles Standish in Taunton, MA. Following a short stay at Camp Miles Standish, the 488th moved to the Cahill Building in southern Boston where it experienced it s first real test of loading cargo onto ships at the Boston Army Base, Commonwealth Pier, and at Castle Island. From here, the 488th was moved to Fort Devens in Ayer, MA for further assignment. The 488th was nearly assigned to Churchill, Canada, which was being considered as a shipping alternative to New York City due to the many ship sinkings by German U-boats, but this assignment never materialized. While waiting for assignment overseas, the 488th was used to replace the striking longshoremen in Boston. The 488th was billeted at Harvard Stadium where they slept on cots under the stadium walkways.

After the strike was settled, the 488th returned to Fort Devens to wait for assignment overseas.

During July and early August, the men of the 488th were given leave prior to shipping out for the war.

At 1900 hours on August 19th of 1943, the 488th Port Battalion was headed to New York aboard a troop train for the trip overseas. At 0730 on August 20th the 488th Port Battalion was loaded on board a cruise ship, the USS Santa Rosa, converted to a troop carrier. The USS Santa Rosa carried 5500 troops and the first contingent of 500 Women Army Corps (WAC s) sailed out of New York harbor, without escort, avoiding waiting German submarines. The USS Santa Rosa soon joined huge convoy. The convoy followed the US coastline south and then across the Atlantic Ocean to Oran, Africa.

When the USS Santa Rosa docked and pulled up her torpedo nets, one torpedo was caught in the net. No one knows when or where the torpedo was caught. The 488th moved on shore to the town of Mers El Kabir.

At Mers El Kabir, the 488th lived in a tent city. The food was bad and the water was contaminated. Many of the men got amoebic dysentery and were too sick to work.

On September 28, 1943, they boarded the Orontes (an English ship) at Alturk, Africa at 1300 hours. (The Orontes was a filthy ship.) They arrived at Bizerte, Africa on October 2nd at 0700 hours. Staying aboard the Orontes, they headed for Naples, Italy. They arrived in Naples (picture of what it looks like today) at 1130 hours on October 6th to find that the Germans had sunken a number of ships at the harbor entrance and at the docks.

In Naples, the 488th was housed in the Institute of Electronics and was assigned to the main pier. The 448th carried 19 officers, 2 warrant officers, and 892 enlisted men.

On entering Naples, the Battalion suffered it s first casualty when he was shot by a German sniper. Nightly bombings interrupted operations but the 488th was still able to set cargo discharging records. Food, ammunition, gas, tanks, and even locomotives were unloaded.

Records set in unloading in three months at Naples qualified the 488th for the assignment for the Anzio landing. Three heavily loaded cargo ships made the initial landing at Anzio the SS John Banvard, the SS Brete Harte, and the SS Hilary Herbert.

On January 20, 1944 at 1300 hours, each company boarded a ship that was loaded in preparation for the invasion of Anzio, Italy. All ships departed Naples the following day and arrived north of the Tiber River at Anzio at 0900 hours on January 22.

The 188th, 189th, 190th, and the 191st stayed on their ships while Headquarter Company set up operations on shore. During the first ten days of unloading under constant German air attacks, the SS Banvard received a near miss that damaged the ship s plates. On January 26 at 2300 hours the SS Hilary Herbert was struck by a German plane that had been shot down, causing severe damage to the ship and it had to be abandoned. On February 13 at 1800 hours the Ely Yale took a direct hit in the number 4 hatch, which had contained bombs and assorted ammunition, but luckily it had been unloaded approximately one hour prior to the attack so it was empty when it was hit by the bomb. In the blast, however, 10 men were killed and 97 more were wounded.

Moving from ship to ship, the 488th, when not on shore unloading landing crafts (LCI s and LST s) moved to newly arriving ships with cargo to be unloaded onto amphibious trucks (DUK s) and barges. Enemy aircraft returned hour after hour, day after day, and night after night attempting to disrupt the unloading operations of the 488th. (Picture) It was like this for 42 straight days. The 488th was also under fire from a 280mm German railroad gun called Anzio Annie.

On February 25, 1944, the 488th was relieved for a well earned and very much deserving rest at Torre Annunziata, Italy (south of Naples). After two weeks there, the 488th returned to Naples for the loading of ships and trips to Anzio. The losses suffered while at Anzio greatly reduced the effectiveness of the Battalion.

The Battalion Commander (William Clemente) was relieved of his command and replaced by Cassell Kingdom. They men of the 488th really liked Kingdom for his I m just one of the guys attitude. He also had the barracks cleaned and painted and showers installed (with hot water). He would even eat with the enlisted men.

Replacements for the dead and wounded came slowly from combat units, but these men were not experienced and physically capable of handling the duties that the men of the 488th have been doing.

On June 13, 1944, the Battalion arrived by truck and ship north to the port of Civitavecchia (near Rome). Here the 488th unloaded 55 gallon drums of high test gasoline. On June 29, the Battalion moved by truck to the port of Piombino to provide convoys with gas and food.

On September 16, the 190th Port Company left Piombino on the Liberty Ship Benning and arrived in Naples on September 18th. The next day the 190th boarded the Italian cruiser Pompeo Magno and departed Naples and on September 20 arrived at the port of Caglairi, Sardinia. The 188th, 189th, and 191st Port Companies along with Headquarters Company moved north to the port of Livorno, Italy (Leghorn) and remained there until there deactivation.

On November 16, 1944, the 190th boarded the Liberty Ship Vernon Pike and departed from Caglairi the following day and arrived in the port of Naples on the November 18. On December 7, the 190th left Naples by train and arrived at Bari, Italy on December 8, 1944.

On November 17th they left Caglairi aboard the Vernon Pike to take the 1-day trip to Naples. On December 7, the 190th left Naples by train headed to Bari, Italy where they arrived the next day. The 190th remained in Bari for almost 1 year.

The war ended in Europe on May 7, 1945, when Germans signed surrender terms at Reims. Several months after the cease fire and surrender by the Germans, the 190th Port Company was given the task of receiving ammunition, which was to be loaded on ships and sent back to the United States. The first ship to be loaded with bombs and ammunition was underway and more than half loaded when it suddenly exploded and destroyed most of the port of Bari. Debris and ship parts were found several miles away from the port. Fortunately, the ship exploded at noon time when most of the people were on lunch break. The 190th lost 2 men, Sgt. Dubbs and Sgt. Jackovina. However, many Italian civilians who were working on the ship and on the docks were killed. After an investigation, it was never determined whether the explosion was sabotage or an accident.

In November of 1945, with the war winding down, the 190th left Bari by truck convoy headed for Naples. They boarded the aircraft carrier USS Randolph. where they celebrated Thanksgiving on there voyage home.

Returning home after the war, many former members of the 488th Port Battalion continued to distinguish themselves with federal service most notably five remained in the military service rising to the rank of field grade officers another completed his medical education and operated his own hospital in Texas another became a distinguished sports reporter while another headed the public school system of one of the mid-west states another followed the profession of the longshoreman to be in charge of one of the largest piers in New York City and another became a labor leader in the longshoreman industry.

On June 3, 1994 ten members of the former 488th Port Battalion made a 50th anniversary trip to the US Cemetery at Anzio-Nettuno to visit the burial site of former buddies and to pay a final tribute to the major contribution they made. (Pictures)

Among the 488th Port Battalion s Assignments They served under the 6th Port, 10th Port, Fifth Army, Third Army, and the 45 Division. The Battalion served under British Command initially at Anzio.

Decorations and Recognition Decorations and recognition came from many sources, not the least of which was an understanding story written by popular reporter Ernie Pyle. The Battalion was awarded the Meritorious Service Award and recognized as having the highest record tonnage handled in the port of Naples.

Final Note With all their accomplishments, heroics, and service to humanity, until recently, in the Army Transportation Corps Museum at Fort Eustis, Virginia, there was a blank space between the 487th and the 489th Port Battalions on the Board of Honor Roll. This was a pitiful salute to the men who served above and beyond the call of duty and to a group at the very top of the list of what Tom Brokaw calls THE GREATEST GENERATION ANY SOCIETY HAS PRODUCED!


Records of Headquarters, European Theater of Operations, United States Army (World War II)

Established: Headquarters European Theater of Operations U.S. Army (HQ ETOUSA) established in London by General Order 3, HQ ETOUSA, June 8, 1942, succeeding Headquarters U.S. Army in the British Isles (HQ USABI), established in London by General Order 1, HQ USABI, January 8, 1942. Until establishment of Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF SEE RG 331), February 13, 1944, HQ ETOUSA participated in operational planning for Allied invasion of western Europe. Performed administrative and service functions for U.S. Army troops, equipment, and facilities in United Kingdom and Iceland, 1942-45 North Africa, November 1942-February 1943 and western Europe, June 6, 1944- July 1, 1945. Moved from London to Valognes, France, September 1, 1944 and to Paris, September 14, 1944. Redesignated HQ USFET, with main headquarters at Frankfurt, Germany, and rear headquarters at Paris, effective July 1, 1945, by General Order 130, HQ ETOUSA, June 20, 1945. HQ USFET redesignated Headquarters European Command (HQ EUCOM), effective March 15, 1947, by General Order 48, HQ USFET, March 10, 1947.

Related Records:
Records of Naval Operating Forces, RG 313.
Records of Allied Operational and Occupation Headquarters, World War II, RG 331.
Records of U.S. Army Operational, Tactical, and Support Organizations (World War II and Thereafter), RG 338.
Records of U.S. Air Force Commands, Activities, and Organizations, RG 342.
Records of U.S. Army Forces in the China-Burma-India Theaters of Operations, RG 493.

498.2 Records of headquarters organizations
1941-47

Textual Records: Decimal correspondence, interrogation reports, personnel rosters, awards files, and other records, 1941-47, of the General Staff Secretary the following general staff sections: G-1 (Personnel), G-2 (Intelligence), G-3 (Operations), and G-4 (Logistics) the following special staff sections for administrative matters: Adjutant General (including the Postal Division), Civil Affairs, Finance, Historical, Judge Advocate General, Provost Marshal, and Public Relations the following special staff sections for technical matters: Engineer, Ordnance, Quartermaster, Signal, Surgeon General (Medical), and Transportation the General Board the General Purchasing Agency Theater Service Forces European Theater and Communications Zone ETOUSA. Administrative file of the Historical Division, ETOUSA/USFET, 1942-46, containing summary historical reports on ETOUSA/USFET headquarters organizations and subordinate commands. Subject file of the Office of the Chief Surgeon, HQ ETOUSA, 1942- 45. Subject file of the Office of the Chief of Transportation, HQ ETOUSA/USFET, 1942-46.

498.3 Records of Headquarters MIS-X (Military Intelligence Service, Escape and Evasion Section) Detachment
1943-47

História: Headquarters 6801st MIS-X Detachment established at Le Vesinet, France, effective May 2, 1945, by General Order 36, Headquarters Military Intelligence Service (HQ MIS) ETOUSA, May 6, 1945. Responsible for compiling information, for reward purposes, on civilians in the formerly occupied areas of western Europe who had assisted downed Allied airmen in escaping and evading the enemy. Redesignated 7709th MIS-X Detachment, effective November 1, 1946, by letter of HQ USFET, October 17, 1946. Abolished, effective January 31, 1947, by HQ USFET radio message CM-IN 251, February 1, 1947.

Textual Records: Escape and evasion reports, 1943-45. Case files on French, Dutch, and Belgian civilians ("Helpers' Files"), 1945-47 (272 ft.), with index.

498.4 Other records
1939-48

Textual Records: British Intelligence Objectives Subcommittee (BIOS) technical and intelligence reports, 1939-48.

Maps and Charts (847 items): Normandy landing beaches and defenses (including the Maginot Line), transportation routes, topography, river crossings, military situations, and administrative boundaries, primarily in France, the Low Countries, and Germany, 1943-45.

Photographic Prints (2,900 images, previously in RG 332): Compiled by the American Graves Registration Command, European Theater (a USFET subordinate command), containing views of U.S. military cemeteries in the Azores, Belgium, England, Northern Ireland, France, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg (including scenes of Gen. George S. Patton's interment at the U.S. military cemetery in Hamm, following his death on December 21, 1945), in albums, 1944- 45 (MC).

Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. Compiled by Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2428 pages.

This Web version is updated from time to time to include records processed since 1995.


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