Revisão: Volume 56 - História do Século XX

Revisão: Volume 56 - História do Século XX

Quando George Washington se despediu de seus oficiais, ele o fez na Taverna Fraunces de Nova York. Quando Andrew Jackson planejou sua defesa de Nova Orleans contra os britânicos em 1815, ele conheceu Jean Lafitte em uma loja de bebidas alcoólicas. E quando John Wilkes Booth conspirou com seus cúmplices para realizar um certo assassinato, eles se reuniram na Taverna Surratt. Em America Walks into a Bar, Christine Sismondo relata a rica e fascinante história de uma instituição frequentemente criticada, mas sempre central para a vida americana. Ela traça a taverna da Inglaterra à Nova Inglaterra, mostrando como até os puritanos valorizavam "um bom Beere". Com narração acelerada e personagens animados, ela carrega a história pelo século XX e além, desde lutas repetidas pelo licenciamento e vendas de bebidas aos domingos, da Rebelião do Whisky ao movimento de temperança, das tentativas de banir o "tratamento" à Proibição e revogação . Como o cockpit do crime organizado, da política e da vida social cotidiana, o bar continua vital - e polêmico - até o presente. Em 2006, quando a Lei de Alívio Fiscal de Emergência do Furacão Katrina foi aprovada, um passageiro excluiu bares de solicitar ajuda ou redução de impostos com o fundamento de que eles não contribuíam com nada para a comunidade. Sismondo prova o contrário: o bar contribuiu de tudo para a história americana. Neste coquetel inebriante de prosa ágil e anedotas contadoras, Sismondo oferece um brinde retumbante a choperias, tabernas, salões, bares clandestinos e o ponto de encontro local onde todos sabem seu nome.

A gentrificação do Brooklyn foi um dos desenvolvimentos mais marcantes da história urbana recente. Considerada uma das favelas industriais mais notórias da cidade nas décadas de 1940 e 1950, Brownstone Brooklyn na década de 1980 havia se tornado uma paisagem pós-industrial de bares da moda, estúdios de ioga e casas geminadas lindamente reformadas e caras. Em The Invention of Brownstone Brooklyn, Suleiman Osman oferece uma história inovadora desta transformação inesperada. Desafiando a sabedoria convencional que o renascimento da cidade de Nova York começou na década de 1990, Osman localiza as origens da gentrificação no Brooklyn nas convulsões culturais das décadas de 1960 e 1970. A gentrificação começou como um movimento popular liderado por jovens universitários brancos idealistas em busca de "autenticidade" e da vida fora dos subúrbios emergentes. Onde os líderes da cidade do pós-guerra defendiam a eliminação de favelas e a arquitetura moderna, os "brownstoners" (como se chamavam) lutavam por um novo ideal urbano romântico que celebrava edifícios históricos, lofts industriais e bairros étnicos tradicionais como refúgio de uma sociedade cada vez mais tecnocrática. Osman examina o surgimento de uma coalizão progressiva de "crescimento lento", à medida que os brownstoners se juntavam aos residentes mais pobres para lutar contra planejadores urbanos e políticos mecânicos locais. Mas, à medida que os brownstoners migraram para as áreas mais pobres, surgiram tensões raciais e de classe e, na década de 1980, quando os jornais parodiaram os yuppies e os ativistas anti-gentrification marcharam por bairros cada vez mais caros, os brownstoners debateram se sua busca por autenticidade havia sido um sucesso ou fracasso. The Invention of Brownstone Brooklyn habilmente mistura história arquitetônica, cultural e política nesta perspectiva reveladora da cidade pós-industrial.


Historiografia

Historiografia é o estudo da metodologia dos historiadores no desenvolvimento da história como uma disciplina acadêmica e, por extensão, é qualquer corpo de trabalho histórico sobre um determinado assunto. A historiografia de um tópico específico cobre como os historiadores estudaram esse tópico usando fontes, técnicas e abordagens teóricas específicas. Os estudiosos discutem a historiografia por tópico - a "historiografia do Império Britânico", a "historiografia do Islã primitivo", a "historiografia da China - e diferentes abordagens e gêneros, como história política e história social. A partir do século XIX, com Com a ascensão da história acadêmica, desenvolveu-se um corpo de literatura historiográfica. Até que ponto os historiadores são influenciados por seus próprios grupos e lealdades - como por seu estado-nação - é uma questão debatida. [1]

Os interesses de pesquisa dos historiadores mudam com o tempo, e tem havido uma mudança da história diplomática, econômica e política tradicional para abordagens mais novas, especialmente estudos sociais e culturais. De 1975 a 1995, a proporção de professores de história nas universidades americanas que se identificam com a história social aumentou de 31 para 41 por cento, enquanto a proporção de historiadores políticos diminuiu de 40 para 30 por cento. [2] Em 2007, de 5.723 docentes nos departamentos de história das universidades britânicas, 1.644 (29%) se identificavam com a história social e 1.425 (25%) se identificavam com a história política. [3]


Grandes livros do mundo ocidental

26. William Gilbert, Sobre a pedra-ímã e corpos magnéticos
Galileo, Diálogos sobre as duas novas ciências
William Harvey, Sobre o Movimento do Coração e do Sangue nos Animais, Sobre a Circulação do Sangue,
Sobre a geração de animais

27. Miguel de Cervantes, Don Quixote

28. Francis Bacon, Avanço da aprendizagem, Novum Organum, New Atlantis
Ren Descartes, Regras para a Direção da Mente, Discurso sobre o Método, Meditações sobre a Filosofia Primeira,
Objeções contra as meditações e respostas, a geometria
Benedict de Spinoza, Ética

29. John Milton, Poemas Menores em Inglês, Paradise Lost, Samson Agonistes, Areopagitica

30. Blaise Pascal, As Cartas Provinciais, Pens es, Tratados científicos

31. Molière, The School for Wives, The Critique of the School for Wives, Tartuffe, Don Juan, The Miser,
O aspirante a cavalheiro, o aspirante a inválido
Jean Racine, Berenice, Phaedra

32. Isaac Newton, Princípios matemáticos da filosofia natural, óptica
Christiaan Huygens, Tratado sobre a Luz

33. John Locke, Uma carta sobre a tolerância, segundo ensaio sobre o governo civil, um ensaio sobre a compreensão humana
George Berkeley, Os Princípios do Conhecimento Humano
David Hume, Uma investigação sobre a compreensão humana

34. Jonathan Swift, Gulliver & # 146s Travels
Voltaire, Cândido
Denis Diderot, Rameau e sobrinho # 146s

35. Montesquieu, O Espírito das Leis
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Um discurso sobre a origem da desigualdade, Um discurso sobre economia política, O contrato social

36. Adam Smith, A riqueza das Nações

37. Edward Gibbon, O declínio e queda do Império Romano

38. Edward Gibbon, O declínio e queda do Império Romano (cont.)

39. Immanuel Kant, A Crítica da Razão Pura, Princípios Fundamentais da Metafísica da Moral, A Crítica da Prática
Razão, Prefácio e Introdução aos Elementos Metafísicos da Ética, Introdução Geral à Metafísica da Moral,
A Ciência do Direito, A Crítica do Julgamento

40. American State Papers (Declaração de Independência, Artigos da Confederação, Constituição dos Estados Unidos da América)
Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay, The Federalist Papers
John Stuart Mill, Na Liberdade, Governo Representativo, Utilitarismo

41. James Boswell, A Vida de Samuel Johnson

42. Antoine Lavoisier, Elementos de Química
Michael Faraday, Pesquisas Experimentais em Eletricidade

43. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, A filosofia do direito, a filosofia da história
Soren Kierkegaard, Medo e Tremor
Friedrich Nietzsche, Além do bem e do mal

44. Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracia na América

45. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Fausto
Honor de Balzac, Prima Bette

46. ​​Jane Austen, Emma
George Eliot, Middlemarch

47. Charles Dickens, Little Dorrit

48. Herman Melville, Moby Dick
Mark Twain, Huckleberry Finn

49. Charles Darwin, A Origem das Espécies, A Descida do Homem

50. Karl Marx e Friedrich Engels, Manifesto do Partido Comunista
Karl Marx, Capital (Vol. 1)

51. Leo Tolstoy, Guerra e Paz

52. Fyodor Dostoiévski, Os irmãos Karamazov
Henrik Ibsen, A Doll & # 146s House, The Wild Duck, Hedda Gabler, The Master Builder

53. William James, Os princípios da psicologia

54. Sigmund Freud, Principais Obras (incluindo Artigos Selecionados sobre Histeria, A Interpretação dos Sonhos, Uma Introdução Geral
à psicanálise, Civilização e seus descontentes, novas palestras introdutórias à psicanálise
)

55. Filosofia e religião do século 20:
William James, Pragmatismo
Henri Bergson, Uma introdução à metafísica
John Dewey, Experiência e Educação
Alfred North Whitehead, Ciência e o mundo moderno
Bertrand Russell, Os problemas da filosofia
Martin Heidegger, O que é metafísica?
Ludwig Wittgenstein, Investigações Filosóficas
Karl Barth, A Palavra de Deus e a Palavra do Homem

56. Ciência Natural do Século 20:
Henri Poincar , Ciência e Hipótese
Max Planck, Autobiografia Científica e outros papéis
Alfred North Whitehead, Uma introdução à matemática
Albert Einstein, Relatividade: o especial e a teoria geral
Arthur Eddington, O Universo em Expansão
Niels Bohr, Teoria Atômica e a Descrição da Natureza (seleções), Discussão com Einstein sobre problemas epistemológicos
em Física Atômica
G.H. Hardy, A Mathematician & # 146s Apology
Werner Heisenberg, Física e Filosofia
Erwin Schrödinger, O que é a vida?
Theodosius Dobzhansky, Genética e a origem das espécies
CH. Waddington, A natureza da vida

57. Ciências Sociais do Século 20 (I):
Thorstein Veblen, A Teoria da Classe Lazer
R.H. Tawney, The Acquisitive Society
John Maynard Keynes, A Teoria Geral do Emprego, Juros e Dinheiro

58. Ciências Sociais do Século XX (II):
James George Frazer, The Golden Bough (seleções)
Max Weber, Ensaios de Sociologia (seleções)
Johan Huizinga, O declínio da Idade Média
Claude L vi-Strauss, Antropologia Estrutural (seleções)

59. Literatura Imaginativa do Século XX (I):
Henry James, A Besta na Selva
George Bernard Shaw, Santa Joana
Joseph Conrad, Coração de escuridão
Anton Chekhov, Tio vanya
Luigi Pirandello, Seis personagens em busca de um autor
Marcel Proust, Swann apaixonado (por Lembrança de coisas passadas)
Willa Cather, Uma senhora perdida
Thomas Mann, Morte em veneza
James Joyce, Um retrato do artista quando jovem

60. Literatura Imaginativa do Século XX (II):
Virgínia Woolf, Para o farol
Franz Kafka, A Metamorfose
D.H. Lawrence, O oficial prussiano
T.S. Eliot, A terra do desperdício
Eugene O & # 146Neill, Luto se torna Electra
F. Scott Fitzgerald, O Grande Gatsby
William Faulkner, Uma rosa para a emily
Bertolt Brecht, Mãe Coragem e Seus Filhos
Ernest Hemingway, A curta vida feliz de Francis Macomber
George Orwell, Fazenda de animais
Samuel Beckett, Esperando por Godot


Nota: A Bíblia também deve ser considerada como parte desta lista. Está indexado em O Syntopicon. Os editores explicam que não foi incluído no Ótimos Livros definido porque foi assumido que qualquer pessoa alfabetizada já teria uma cópia.

Os editores também observam que as seleções do século XX são apenas uma amostra provisória: Resta ver qual delas, na perspectiva do tempo, se mostrará tão duradoura quanto as obras anteriores.


Índice do Grandes livros do mundo ocidental (2ª edição, 1990), editado por Mortimer Adler et al., Publicado pela Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.


Gyrovague e # 039s Raves

VOLUME 1 e 2
O Syntopicon
Este guia exclusivo permite que você
investigar uma ideia específica, como
coragem ou democracia, e compare
as perspectivas de diferentes autores.
VOLUME 3
Homer
A Ilíada
A odisseia
VOLUME 4
Ésquilo (C. 525-456 aC)
The Suppliant Maidens
Os persas
Sete contra tebas
Prometheus Bound
Agamenon
The Libation Bearers
As Eumênides
Sófocles (C. 495-406 aC)
Édipo o Rei
Édipo em Colonus
Antígona
Ajax
Electra
As Mulheres de Trachis
Filoctetes
Eurípides (C. 480-406 AC)
Rhesus
The Medea
Hipólito
Alcestis
O heracleidae
As Mulheres Suplementares
As mulheres troianas
Íon
Helen
Andrômaca
Electra
As bacantes
Hecuba
Heracles
As mulheres fenícias
Orestes
Ifigênia em Tauris
Ifigênia em Aulis
O ciclope
Aristófanes (C. 455-380 aC)
Os Acharnians
Os cavaleiros
As nuvens
As vespas
Paz
Os pássaros
Os sapos
Lisístrata
O Poeta e as Mulheres
As mulheres da assembleia
Fortuna
VOLUME 5
Heródoto (C. 484-425 aC)
A história
Tucídides (C. 460-400 aC)
A História da Guerra do Peloponeso

VOLUME 6
Platão (C. 428-348 AC)
Charmides
Lysis
Laches
Protágoras
Eutidemo
Crátilo
Fedro
Íon
Simpósio
Eu não
Eutífron
Desculpa
Crito
Fédon
Górgias
A República
Timeu
Critias
Parmênides
Teeteto
Sofista
Político
Philebus
Leis
A sétima letra
VOLUME 7
Aristóteles I (C. 384-322 aC)
Categorias
Na Interpretação
Análise Prévia
Posterior Analytics
Tópicos
Sobre Refutações Sofísticas
Física
Nos céus
Em Geração e Corrupção
Meteorologia
Sobre o sentido e a reminiscência
No sono e insônia
Nos sonhos
Sobre profetizar
Sobre longevidade e brevidade de vida
Na juventude e na velhice, na vida e na morte, na respiração
VOLUME 8
Aristóteles II (C. 384-322 aC)
História dos Animais
Sobre as partes dos animais
Sobre o movimento dos animais
Na marcha dos animais
Sobre a geração de animais
Ética a Nicômaco
Política
A constituição ateniense
Retórica
Na Poética
VOLUME 9
Hipócrates (FL. 400 AC)
O juramento
Na Medicina Antiga
No ar, na água e em lugares
O Livro dos Prognósticos
Em regime em doenças agudas
Das epidemias
Sobre Lesões da Cabeça
Na cirurgia
Em fraturas
Nas articulações
Instrumentos de redução
Aforismos
A lei
Em úlceras
Em fístulas
Sobre hemorróidas
Sobre a doença sagrada
Galen (C. AD 130-200)
Nas Faculdades Naturais
VOLUME 10
Euclides (FL. C. 300 AC)
Os treze livros dos elementos de Euclides
Arquimedes (C. 287-212 aC)
Na esfera e no cilindro
Medição de um Círculo
Em Conóides e Esferóides
Em espirais
No Equilíbrio de Planos
The Sand-Reckoner
Quadratura da Parábola
Em corpos flutuantes
Livro dos Lemas
O Método de Tratamento de Problemas Mecânicos
VOLUME 11
Lucrécio (C. 98-C. 55 aC)
Do jeito que as coisas são
Epicteto (C. 60-C. 138 DC)
Os discursos
Marco Aurélio (121-180 DC)
As meditações
Plotino (205-270 DC)
Os Seis Enéadas
VOLUME 12
Virgílio (70-19 AC)
The Eclogues
The Georgics
A Eneida
VOLUME 13
Plutarco (C. 46-C. 120)
Teseu
Romulus
Rômulo e Teseu comparados
Lycurgus
Numas Pompilius
Lycurgus e Numa Comparados
Solon
Poplicola
Poplicola e Solon Comparados
Temístocles
Camillus
Péricles
Fabius
Fábio e Péricles comparados
Alcibiades
Coriolanus
Alcibiades e Coriolanus Comparados
Timoleon
Aemilius Paulus
Aemilius Paulus e Timoleon Comparados
Pelopidas
Marcelo
Marcelo e Pelópidas comparados
Aristides
Marcus Cato
Aristide e Marcus Cato Comparados
Philopoeman
Flamininus
Flamininus e Philopoeman Comparados
Pirro
Caius Marius
Lysander
Sulla
Lysander e Sulla compararam
Cimon
Lúculo
Cimon e Lucullus comparados
Nicias
Crasso
Crasso e Nicias comparados
Sertório
Eumenus
Eumenus e Sertório comparados
Agesilaus
Pompeu
Agesilaus e Pompeu comparados

César
Phocion
Gato o mais novo
Agis
Cleomenes
Tiberius Gracchus
Caius Gracchus
Caius e Tiberius Gracchus e Agis e Cleomenes comparados
Demóstenes
Cicero
Cícero e Demóstenes Comparados
Demetrius
Antony
Antônio e Demétrio comparados
Dion
Marcus Brutus
Brutus e Dion compararam
Aratus
Artaxerxes
Galba
Otho
VOLUME 14
Tácito (C. 55-C. 117)
Os anais
Estas Histórias
VOLUME 15
Ptolomeu (C. 100-C. 178)
O almagesto
Copérnico (1473-1543)
Sobre as revoluções das esferas celestes
Kepler (1571-1630)
Epítome da Astronomia Copernicana: IV - V
As Harmonias do Mundo: V
VOLUME 16
Augus dente (354-430)
As confissões
A cidade de deus
Na Doutrina Cristã
VOLUME 17
Tomás de Aquino I (c. 1225 - 1724)
Tratado sobre Deus
Tratado sobre a Trindade
Tratado sobre a Criação
Tratado sobre os Anjos
Tratado do Trabalho dos Seis Dias
Tratado sobre o Homem
Tratado sobre o Governo Divino
Tratado sobre o Último Fim
Tratado de Atos Humanos
VOLUME 18
Tomás de Aquino II
Tratado de Hábitos
Tratado de Direito
Tratado sobre a Graça
Tratado sobre Fé, Esperança e Caridade
Tratado sobre Ativo e Contemplativo
Tratado sobre os Estados de Vida
Tratado sobre a Encarnação
Tratado sobre os Sacramentos
Tratado sobre a Ressurreição
Tratado sobre as últimas coisas
VOLUME 19
Dante (1265 - 1321)
A Divina Comédia
Chaucer (C. 1340 - 1400)
Troilus e Criseyde
Os contos de Canterbury
VOLUME 20
Calvin (1509 - 1564)
Institutos da Religião Cristã

VOLUME 21
Maquiavel (1469-1527)
O príncipe
Hobbes (1588-1679)
Leviatã, ou matéria, forma e poder de uma comunidade eclesiástica
e civil
VOLUME 22
Rabelais (C.1495 - 1553)
Gargantua e Pantagruel
VOLUME 23
Erasmus (C.1467 - C. 1536)
Louvor da Loucura
Montaigne (1533 - 1592)
Os Ensaios
VOLUME 24
Shakespeare I (1564-1616)
A Primeira Parte do Rei Henrique VI
A segunda parte do rei Henrique VI
A Terceira Parte do Rei Henrique VI
A Tragédia do Rei Ricardo III
A comédia dos erros
Titus Andronicus
A Megera Domada
Os Dois Cavalheiros de Verona
Love’s Labour’s Lost
Romeu e Julieta
A Tragédia do Rei Ricardo Segundo
Sonho de uma noite de verão
A Vida e Morte do Rei João
O mercador de Veneza
A Primeira Parte do Rei Henrique IV
A segunda parte do rei Henrique IV
Muito barulho por nada
A Vida do Rei Henrique Quinto
Shakespeare I (1564-1616)
Júlio César
Como você gosta
VOLUME 25
Shakespeare II
Décima segunda noite ou, o que você quiser
Hamlet, Príncipe da Dinamarca
As Alegres Mulheres de Windsor
Troilus e Cressida
Tudo fica bem quando termina bem
Medida por Medida
Otelo, o mouro de Veneza
Rei Lear
Macbeth
Antônio e Cleópatra
Coroilanus
Timon de Atenas
Péricles, Príncipe de Tiro
Cymbeline
The Winter’s Tale
A tempestade
A Famosa História da Vida do Rei Henrique VIII
Sonetos
VOLUME 26
Gilbert (1540-1603)
Sobre a pedra-ímã e corpos magnéticos
Galilei (1564-1642)
Sobre as Duas Novas Ciências
Harvey (1578-1657)
Sobre o Movimento do Coração e do Sangue nos Animais
Sobre a Circulação do Sangue
Sobre a geração de animais
VOLUME 27
Cervantes (1547-1616)
A História de Dom Quixote de la Mancha

VOLUME 28
Bacon (1561-1626)
Avanço da aprendizagem
Novum Organum
Nova Atlântida
Descartes (1596 - 1650)
Regras para a direção da mente
Discurso sobre o método de conduzir corretamente a razão
Meditações sobre a filosofia primeira
Objeções contra as meditações e respostas
A geometria
Spinoza (1632 - 1677)
Ética
VOLUME 29
Milton (1608 - 1674)
Poemas menores em inglês
Paraíso Perdido
Samson Agonistes
Areopagitica
VOLUME 30
Pascal (1623 - 1662)
As Cartas Provinciais
Pensees
Tratados científicos
VOLUME 31
Moliere (1622 - 1673)
A escola para esposas
A crítica da escola para esposas
Tartuff
Don juan
O avarento
O aspirante a cavalheiro
O pretenso inválido
Racine (1639-1699)
Berenice
Phaedra
VOLUME 32
Newton (1642 - 1727)
Princípios matemáticos da filosofia natural
Óptica
Huygens (1629-1695)
Tratado sobre a Luz
VOLUME 33
Locke (1632 - 1704)
Uma Carta Sobre Tolerância Relativa ao Governo Civil, Segundo
Redação
Um ensaio sobre a compreensão humana
Berkeley (1685 - 1763)
Os Princípios do Conhecimento Humano
Hume (1711 - 1776)
Uma investigação sobre a compreensão humana
VOLUME 34
Swift (1667 - 1745)
As Viagens de Gulliver
Voltaire (1694 - 1778)
Cândido
Diderot (1713-1784)
Sobrinho de rameau
VOLUME 35
Montesquieu (1689 - 1755)
O Espírito das Leis

Rousseau (1712 - 1778)
Sobre a origem da desigualdade
Sobre Economia Política
O Contrato Social
VOLUME 36
Adam Smith (1723 - 1790)
Uma investigação sobre a natureza e as causas da riqueza das nações
VOLUME 37
Gibbon I (1737-1794)
O Declínio e Queda do Império Romano, vol. eu
VOLUME 38
Gibbon II
O Declínio e Queda do Império Romano, vol. II
VOLUME 39
Kant (1724 - 1804)
A crítica da razão pura
A crítica da razão prática
A crítica do julgamento
VOLUME 40
American State Papers
A declaração de independência
Artigos da Confederação
A Constituição dos Estados Unidos da América

Alexander Hamilton (1757-1804), James Madison (1751-1836),
John Jay (1745-1829)
O federalista

John Stuar t Mill (1806-1873)
Na liberdade
Governo Representativo
Utilitarismo
VOLUME 41
James Boswell (1740-1795)
A Vida de Samuel Johnson, LLD
VOLUME 42
Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794)
Elementos em Química
Michael Faraday (1791-1867)
Pesquisas Experimentais em Eletricidade
VOLUME 43
Georg Wilhelm F riedrich Hegel (1770-1831)
A Filosofia do Direito
A Filosofia da História
Soren Kierk egaard (1813-1855)
Medo e Tremor
Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)
Além do bem e do mal
VOLUME 44
Alex é De Tocqueville (1805-1859)
Democracia na América
VOLUME 45
Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe (1749-1832)
Fausto
Honoré De Balzac (1799-1850)
Prima Bette

VOLUME 46
Austen, Jane (1775-1817)
Emma
Eliot, George (1819-1880)
Middlemarch
VOLUME 47
Charles Dickens (1812-1870)
Little Dorrit
VOLUME 48
Herman Melville (1819-1891)
Moby Dick
Mark Twain (1835-1910)
Aventuras de Huckleberry Finn
VOLUME 49
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
A origem das espécies por meio da seleção natural
A descendência do homem e a seleção em relação ao sexo
VOLUME 50
Karl Marx (1818-1883)
Capital
Karl Marx e F riedrich Engels (1820-1895)
Manifesto do Partido Comunista
VOLUME 51
Conde Leo Tolstoi (1828-1910)


Análise Filosófica no Século XX, Vol. 2: A Idade do Significado



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Revisão: Volume 56 - História do Século 20 - História

Romancista, Ensaista (2 de agosto de 1924 e # 151 30 de novembro de 1987)

Harold Bloom. James Baldwin. Editores da Chelsea House. 1986. 164pp.

Rosa Bobia. A recepção crítica de James Baldwin na França: uma análise e bibliografia comentada de seus críticos francófonos. Publicação de Peter Lang. 1997. 191pp.

James Campbell. Falando nos Portões: A Vida de James Baldwin. Viking. 1991. 306pp.

James Campbell. Exilados em Paris: Richard Wright, James Baldwin, Samuel Beckett e outros na margem esquerda. Nova York: Simon & Schuster. 1995. 271pp.

Ernest A. Champion. Sr. Baldwin, presumo: James Baldwin - Chinua Achebe: Um Encontro de Mentes. University Press of America. 1995.

Keith Clark. Black Manhood em James Baldwin, Ernest J. Gaines e August Wilson. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. 2002. 176pp.

Kenneth B. Clark. O Protesto Negro: James Baldwin, Malcolm X e Martin Luther King. Beacon Press. 1963. 56pp.

Ursula Broschke Davis. Paris sem arrependimento: James Baldwin, Kenny Clarke, Chester Himes e Donald Byrd. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa Press. 1986. 124pp.

Fern Marja Eckman. A passagem furiosa de James Baldwin. Nova York: M. Evans. 1966. 256pp.

Clarence E. Hardy III. Deus de James Baldwin: Sexo, Esperança e Crise na Cultura da Santidade Negra. University of Tennessee Press. 2003. 147pp.

Trudier Harris. Mulheres negras na ficção de James Baldwin. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press. 1985.

R. Jothiprakash. Compromisso como um tema na literatura afro-americana: um estudo de James Baldwin e Ralph Ellison. Bristol, IN: Wyndham Hall Press. 1994. 211pp.

Kenneth Kinnamon (editor). James Baldwin: uma coleção de ensaios críticos. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. 1974.

David Leeming. James Baldwin. Michael Joseph. 1994. 445pp.

Stanley Macebuh. James Baldwin: um estudo crítico. Nova York: John Okpaku Publishing Co./The Third Press. 1973. 194pp.

D. Quentin Miller. Revendo James Baldwin: coisas não vistas. Temple University Press. 2000.

Jarub Moller Karin Moller. O tema da identidade nos ensaios de James Baldwin: uma interpretação. Coronet Books Inc .. 1975. 186pp.

Therman B. O'Daniel. James Baldwin: uma avaliação crítica. Howard University Press. 1977. 272pp.

Horace A. Porter. Roubando o fogo: a arte e o protesto de James Baldwin. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press. 1989.

Louis H. Pratt. James Baldwin. Twayne. 1978. 157pp.

Lynn Orilla Scott. Ficção posterior de James Baldwin: testemunha da jornada. Michigan State University Press. 2002. 224pp.

Vahan Sewny. A Teoria Social de James Mark Baldwin. Nova York: Augustus M. Kelley. 1967. 93pp.

Fred L. Standley Nancy V. Burt (editores). Ensaios críticos sobre James. G. K. Hall & Company. 1988. 312pp.

James Tackach. A Importância de James Baldwin. San Diego, CA: Lucent Books. 1997.

W. J. Weatherby. James Baldwin: Artista em chamas. Londres: Michael Joseph. 1990. 412pp.


    Biblioteca de livros e manuscritos raros de Beinecke, Universidade de Yale

Museu Nacional de História e Cultura Afro-americana

Abaixo estão as referências que indicam a presença deste nome em outro banco de dados ou outro material de referência. A maioria das fontes listadas são de natureza enciclopédica, mas podem ser limitadas a um campo específico, como músicos ou diretores de cinema. A falta de listagens aqui não indica falta de importância - não estamos nem perto de terminar esta parte do projeto - embora, se muitas forem mostradas, isso indique um amplo reconhecimento desse indivíduo.


Revisão: Volume 56 - História do Século 20 - História

Apesar de cerca de um sexto dos homens do mundo terem sido circuncidados [1,2], há muito tempo foi esquecido onde ou por que essa operação tão intrigante começou. O procedimento foi realizado por motivos religiosos, culturais e médicos, embora o último só tenha se tornado moda a partir do surgimento da cirurgia moderna no século XIX. Assim, as indicações cirúrgicas vieram à tona, submergiram e se alteraram com as tendências da época. Nesta revisão, exploramos as origens da circuncisão e discutimos as técnicas e controvérsias que evoluíram desde que o evento se tornou "medicalizado".

Os antropólogos não concordam sobre as origens da circuncisão. O egiptólogo inglês Sir Graham Elliot Smith sugeriu que é uma das características de uma cultura 'heliolítica' que, há cerca de 15 000 anos, se espalhou por grande parte do mundo. Outros acreditam que pode ter se originado independentemente dentro de várias culturas diferentes, certamente, muitos dos nativos que Colombo encontrou habitando o `Novo Mundo 'foram circuncidados. No entanto, sabe-se que a circuncisão foi praticada no Oriente Próximo, irregularmente em toda a África tribal, entre os povos muçulmanos da Índia e do sudeste da Ásia, bem como pelos aborginos australianos, até onde sabemos. As primeiras múmias egípcias (1300 aC) foram circuncidadas e pinturas de parede no Egito mostram que era costume vários milhares de anos antes disso [3,4].

Em algumas tribos africanas, a circuncisão é realizada no nascimento. Nas sociedades judaicas, o ritual é realizado no oitavo dia após o nascimento, mas para os muçulmanos e muitas das culturas tribais é realizado no início da vida adulta como um 'rito de passagem', por exemplo, puberdade ou casamento. Por que a prática evoluiu não está claro e muitas teorias foram propostas. Os historiadores do século XIX sugeriram que o ritual é uma forma antiga de controle social. Eles concebem que cortar o pênis de um homem para causar sangramento e dor é para lembrá-lo do poder da Igreja, ou seja, `Temos controle sobre sua distinção de ser um homem, seu prazer e seu direito de se reproduzir '. O ritual é um aviso e o momento dita quem é avisado para o recém-nascido são os pais que aderem à Igreja: `Nós marcamos o teu filho, que pertence a nós, não a ti '[5]. Para o jovem adolescente, a advertência acompanha o engrandecimento da puberdade a época em que a força crescente dá a independência, e a rebelião da juventude [6].

Os psicólogos ampliaram essa teoria para incorporar noções de "impressão da dor". Ao codificar a violência no cérebro, o vínculo materno-infantil é interrompido e um sentimento de traição é instilado no bebê. Essas qualidades são consideradas requisitos que aumentam a capacidade da criança de sobreviver mais tarde na vida [7]. De fato, alguns componentes dessas teorias psicológicas foram testados recentemente em estudos clínicos prospectivos e agora há evidências de que neonatos circuncidados sem anestésico local apresentam respostas de dor aumentadas quando vacinações de 4 e 6 meses são administradas [8].

Figura 1. Um guerreiro Schemite capturado é circuncidado. Gravação
por J. Muller. Reproduzido com permissão do Wellcome Institute.

Outros acreditam que a circuncisão surgiu como uma marca de contaminação ou escravidão [1,9] (fig. 1). No antigo Egito, os guerreiros capturados eram freqüentemente mutilados antes de serem condenados à escravidão. Amputação de dígitos e castração eram comuns, mas a morbidade era alta e seu valor resultante como escravos era reduzido. No entanto, a circuncisão era tão degradante e evoluiu como um compromisso suficientemente humilhante. Eventualmente, todos os descendentes masculinos desses escravos foram circuncidados. Os fenícios, e mais tarde os judeus que foram em grande parte escravizados, adotaram e ritualizaram a circuncisão. Com o tempo, a circuncisão foi incorporada à prática religiosa judaica e vista como um sinal externo de uma aliança entre Deus e o homem (Gênesis XVI, Fig. 2).

Figura 2. A circuncisão é uma aliança entre Deus e o homem.
Reproduzido com permissão do Wellcome Institute.

Existem muitas outras razões pelas quais a circuncisão pode ter evoluído. Alguns sugeriram que é uma marca de identidade cultural, semelhante a uma tatuagem ou um piercing [3]. Alternativamente, existem razões para acreditar que o ritual evoluiu como um rito de fertilidade [4]. Por exemplo, que algumas culturas tribais distribuem 'temporadas' para a operação masculina e feminina, apóia a visão de que a circuncisão se desenvolveu como um sacrifício aos deuses, uma oferta em troca de uma boa colheita, etc. Isso pareceria razoável, pois o pênis é claramente habitada por poderes que produzem vida. Na verdade, a evidência de uma conexão com darvests também é encontrada na Nicarágua, onde o sangue das operações é misturado com milho para ser comido durante a cerimônia [1,10]. (Fig. 3). Embora as verdadeiras origens da circuncisão nunca sejam conhecidas, é provável que a verdade esteja em parte com todas as teorias descritas.

Fig. 3 Os assistentes aguardam para coletar o sangue da circuncisão, que será misturado ao milho e comido em uma cerimônia de colheita. Reproduzido com permissão do Wellcome Institute.

Dos tempos antigos aos medievais

Quaisquer que sejam as forças religiosas ou culturais que impulsionaram essa prática, pistas históricas para os aspectos cirúrgicos da bengala de circuncisão podem ser encontradas narrando os textos médicos. No entanto, essa abordagem tem suas limitações: as técnicas e os profissionais eram diversos e o estudo da escrita cirúrgica por si só fornece um reflexo incompleto das controvérsias que são endêmicas em todos os tempos. Além disso, eram sempre os médicos que realizavam o procedimento na antiguidade? Provavelmente não: nos tempos bíblicos, era a mãe que realizava a cerimônia no recém-nascido. Gradualmente, os mohels assumiram o comando de homens que possuíam a habilidade cirúrgica necessária e conhecimentos religiosos avançados. Depois da oração, o mohel circuncidou a criança e então abençoou a criança, uma prática que mudou pouco hoje [11] (Fig. 4a-d). Na antiga sociedade egípcia, o procedimento era realizado por um sacerdote com a unha do polegar (muitas vezes impregnada de ouro) e, ao longo dos tempos medievais, parece ter sido mantido em grande parte no domínio dos religiosos [12].

Fig. 4. (a) Um Mohel circuncida uma criança com a unha do dedo. (b) Uma faca de circuncisão antiga. Placa de coleta e Pergaminho da Torá (

300 AD). (c) Instrumentos e objetos sagrados do Iluminismo (1741): Acima do bisturi, pratos de coleta, unção e suporte para prepúcio. Abaixo: pergaminhos da Torá. (d) Um canivete de Mohel. Todos reproduzidos com permissão do Wellcome Institute.

Poucos textos médicos medievais descrevem o procedimento, embora Teodoric (1267) sugira a necessidade de 'remoção da parte final (pênis)' no tratamento de 'verrugas pretas e tubérculos' [13]. Ele pode, de fato, estar descrevendo a circuncisão no contexto de alguma patologia peniana. No entanto, é provável que os médicos não tenham feito a circuncisão até a segunda metade do século XIX.

Início do século 19

Breves descrições da circuncisão de adultos para fimose começam a aparecer nos livros didáticos do início do século XIX. Although the surgical techniques tend not to be described in detail, Abernathy (1928) [14] who was a reluctant surgeon) does report the use of the bistoury (knife) to achieve circumcision in men with `gonoccocal phimosis'. He also states that the bleeding should be `stanched with iodoform and boric', possibly indicating that sutures were not applied. Baillie (1833) [15] also describes gonococcal phimosis and recommends that the initial treatment is `nugatory' (inoperative) involving the washing of the penis (and under the prepuce with soap and tepid water, followed by the application of calomel ointment. Abernathy also warns against immediate circumcision in the face of a `morbidly sensitive surface' (and declares that Sir Edward Home agrees with him!). He advocates that the posthitis (inflamed foreskin) should be allowed to `soothe and allay' before surgical intervention. We can assume that the complications recognized by both Abernathy and Baillie were re-phimosis, re-stricture or suppuration what is clear is that circumcision was not a procedure taken lightly at that time. Interestingly, neither author mentions circumcision in the neonate, suggesting that it had not yet significantly entered the domain of English surgeons.

Mid-19th to early 20th century

By the middle of the 19th century, anaesthesia and antisepsis were rapidly changing surgical practice. The first reported circumcision in the surgical accounts of St Bartholomew's Hospital was in 1865 although this comprised only one of the 417 operations performed that year, it was clearly becoming a more common procedure [16]. Indeed, this was a time when surgical cures were being explored for all ails and in 1878 Curling described circumcision as a cure for impotence in men who also had as associated phimosis [17]. Many other surgeons reported circumcision as being beneficial for a diverse range of sexual problems [18]. Walsham (1903) re-iterates the putative association of phimosis with impotence and suggests that it may also predispose to sterility, priapism, excess masturbation and even venereal disease [19]. Warren (1915) adds epilepsy, nocturnal enuresis, night terrors and `precocious sexual unrest' to the list of dangers [20], and this accepted catalogue of `phimotic ills' is extended in American textbooks to include other aspects of `sexual erethisms' such as homosexuality [21,22].

Fig. 5. The scissor technique described by Sir Frederick Treves (1903). Reproduced from [23].

The turn of the 19th century was also an important time in laying the foundations of surgical technique. Sir Frederick Treves (1903) provides us with a comprehensive account of basic surgical principles that remain today [23]. Like most of his contemporaries, he used scissors to remove the prepuce (fig. 5) and describes ligation of the frenular artery as being `mandatory' in the adult. He also warns against the excess removal of skin, as this may lead to chordee.

Treves also maintains that the oppositional sutures of the skin edges must be of interrupted `fine catgut'. Other surgeons chose to use horse-hair or silk [19], but irrespective of variations in suturing materials, all were agreed that a continuous stitch should not be applied. One notable exception was the Master Technician and influential French Surgeon E. Doyen, who headed his own Institute of Surgical Excellence in Paris (L'Institut Doyen). Many foreign surgical trainees passed through his department, and together with his English collaborator H. Spencer-Browne, they described their antihaemorrhagic triradiate continuous circumcision suture line [24]. Three circular sutures of no. 1 silk were applied to achieve `coaptation' of the skin edges, each one third of the circumference of the glans. The ends were not tied so as to allow expansion of the space between the two skin layers if necessary (fig. 6a). A compressing piece of sterilized muslim was then wrapped over the entire distal penis, with a snug hole to allow for the passage of the glans (Fig. 6b). The sutures and the muslin were then removed after 3-5 days.

Fig. 6. (a) The triradiate continuous suture of Doyen (1920). (b) Compressive muslin dressing.

Such variations in suture application aimed at minimizing the most frequent immediate complication of haemorrhage. Indeed, the popular urological text of Charles Chetwood (1921) recommended leaving long interrupted horse-hair sutures so that compressive strips of iodoform and petroleum gauze could be securely tied down over the suture line (Fig. 7a). Variations on what became known as `chetwood's dressing' appeared as recently as Sir Alec Badenorch's Manual of Urology in 1953 (Fig 7b) [25]. This later text is also interesting in that measures to prevent haemorrhage within the first 24 h of surgery included the administration of stilboestrol to prevent erection of the penis. He recommended that this be given at a dose of 5 mg three times daily, beginning one day before surgery and continued for several days afterwards. He also advocated the use of bromide and chloral for similar reasons. It is also interesting that the 1974 edition of Badenoch's Manual no longer included this advice.

Fig. 7. Chetwood's lang horse-hair tethering sutures (1921) and (b) Chetwood's dressing. From [25]

Neonatal circumcision techniques have evolved in parallel. It is clear from most surgical texts that circumcision of the new-born had become a regular request for the surgeon by the later part of the 19th century. For instance, Jacobsen (1893) [26] warns of the importance of establishing a familial bleeding tendency from the mother before circumcision. He describes the case of four Jewish infants, each descended from a different grandchild of a common ancestress, all of whom died from haemorrhage after circumcision. Treves (1903) [23] and most other contemporary writers note that ligation of the frenular arteries is usually not necessary in the neonate and that bleeding can usually be controlled by simple pressure. Indeed it seems that `crush' with a clamp followed by preputial excision rapidly became the template for the operation in babies. As such, the last hundred years has seen the evolution of various crushing and clamping instruments to facilitate the procedure. Doyen (1920) [24] developed his écraseur for use in neonatal circumcision. The foreskin was crushed and cut in four separate manoeuvres with very little concomitant bleeding. He was so impressed with the efficacy of this instrument that he frequently used it for adult circumcisions without (he claimed) the need for additional sutures (Fig. 8a-c).

Fig. 8. (a) the Écraseur of Doyen (1920), with (b) and (c) showing the four-point crushing manoeuvre.

By the 1930s, many circumcision clamps were available for use in the new-born. Indeed, the use of such clamps prompted Thomson-Walker [27] to painstakingly warn of the dangers of injury to the glans when such clamps were used, and not surprisingly, more sophiticated tools were introduced to protect the penis. The prototype of the `Winkelman' was introduced in 1935 and its appearance has changed little today. (Fig. 9). However, concern not only over the dangers of neonatal circumcision, but also of the risks of neonatal anaesthesia lead to the development of the `Plastibell' device by the Hollister company in the 1950s (Fig. 10). Its use was first reported in 1956 [28] and several favourable reports followed [29,30]. With the exception of the occasional proximal migration of the ring [31,32], complications are few and the device remains in widespread popular use today. More recently plastic clamps with integral stell cutting blades have also been introduced [33]. These include instruments such as the Glansguard TM (Fig. 11) and many other clamps, e.g. the Gomco, Bronstein and Mogen variations, are used in different parts of the world.

Fig. 9. The `Winkelman' circumcision clamp. Reproduced with permission of Aescalup Surgical Products.

Fig. 10. The Plastibell TM device.

Alternative procedures

More than 2000 years of Jewish persecution has led to the development of alternative surgical procedures. Indeed, `uncircumcision as a measure to offset the oppression of Jews is cited in the Old Testament (I Maccabees 1:14-15) and surgical attempts to restore the prepuce have been well documented throughout history [17,34,35]. In modern times, this was no more true than during the period of Nazi terror, where clandestine recontructions were commonplace in a desperate attempt by Jewish men to avoid internment [36]. Relics of anti-Semitism are evident throughout history and even the statue of Michelangelo's David (a Jew), which was erected in Florence in 1504 was carved uncircumcised [37] (Fig. 12). Not surprisingly, contemporary operations to `stretch' the circumcised foreskin are recorded in early Renaissance Europe [34]. In more recent surgical times, surgeons were urged to develop alternative procedures to circumcision for men who required surgery for phimosis. Cloquet's `V' excision of the foreskin in 1900 was a popular means to retain a `cloak' of prepuce over the glans, yet still release the phimosis [38] In 1926, Young and Davies [39] described a preputial-plasty whereby a constricting band of the foreskin was incised and then closed by the Heinecke-Mikulicz principle (Fig. 13). Although not widely practised, this procedure has stood the test of time and recently was shown to be superior to circumcision in a comparative study [40].

Fig. 11. The glansguard TM device

Recurrent paraphimosis has long been held to be an indication for circumcision. In most circumstances, it can be reduced by manipulation, and circumcision performed electively later. However, Walsham (1903) [19] recommended an alternative approach whereby acute division of the paraphimotic band was all that was necessary. He suggested that in the presence of such an oedematous prepuce, the phimotic band would heal with less constriction, and that delayed circumcision would not be required (Fig. 14). Young and Davies also described a similar procedure whereby a preputial-plasty was performed on the constricting band during the acute oedematous phase the prepuce was reduced and the need for a circumcision negated (Fig. 15). It is interesting that a `re-invention' of this operation has recently been reported [41].

Understanding the prepuce

It is surprising that despite the many billions of foreskins that have been severed over thousands of years, it is only recently that efforts have been made to understand the prepuce. The first adequate embyrological description of preputial development was published in the 1930s [42]. It was realized that the formation of the preputial space occurred by patch desquamation of the epithelial cells which were contiguous between the glans and the prepuce, a process not necessarily complete by birth [43]. Indeed the first study to address this question was the influential landmark report of Douglas Gairdner in 1949 [44]. He concluded that only 4% of foreskins were fully retractile at birth, yet 90% were so by the age of 3 years. Of these remaining foreskins, most could be rendered retractile by gentle manipulation. Recent studies have suggested that by the age of 17 years, only 1% remain unretractile [45]. However, the importance of Gairdner's paper was that he was one of the first people to ascribe a function to the prepuce. Previous medical texts are notable for their absence of comment and some even describe the prepuce as a vestigial structure [20,21,46]. Gairdner made the astute observations that the slow period of preputial development corresponded with the age of incontinence. He felt that the prepuce had a protective role and noted that meatal ulceration only occurred in circumcised boys. Recently, a doctor writing anonymously in the BMJ provided an analogy suggesting that the prepuce is to the glans what the eyelid is to the eye [47].

Fig. 12. Michelangelo's David, uncircumcised (inset)

Fig. 13. The preputial-plasty of Young and Davies [39].

To date, a more definite function cannot be ascribed to the prepuce, but as an accessible and ready source of fibroblasts, it has become a favourite tissue reservoir for cell-culture biologists and hence basic scientific research. From this wealth of disparate information, it is clear that the foreskin is an androgen-dependent structure [48] with complex intradermal enzyme systems. These confer upon it a wide range of metabolic functions, including the differential metabolism of various prostaglandins which are copiously produced throughout the male and female genital tract [49]. Certainly, it can be anticipated that many other biochemical functions will be defined in the years to come a vestigal structure it almost certainly is not [50].

Fig. 14. The paraphimotic-plasty of Walshame (1903) [19].

Fig. 15. Acute division of the phimotic band in paraphimosis [39].

Notwithstanding the relative disinterest over the function of the prepuce, no other operation has been surrounded by controversy so much as circumcision. Should it be done, then when, why, how and by whom? Religious and cultural influences are pervasive, parental confusion is widespread and medical indications shift with the trends of the day. Doctors divide into camps driven by self-interest, self-righteousness and self-defence. It is not surprising that some of the most colourful pages in the medical literature are devoted to the debate. For instance in 1950, Sir James Spence of Newcastle upon Tyne responded to the request from a local GP as follows:

Literary assaults such as these have served to fuel the debates and even a Medline ® search today reveals that in the last year alone, 155 reviews or letters have been published arguing for or against routine circumcision. However, studying the evolution of the medical indications provides us with a pleasing demonstration of how controversy drives scientific enquiry. We have already described how the surgeons of 100 years ago advocated circumcision for a wide variety of conditions, such as impotence, nocturnal enuresis, sterility, excess masturbation, night terrors, epilepsy, etc. There can be no doubt that a large element of surgical self-interest drove these claims. However, most of the contemporary textbooks also included epithelioma (carcinoma) of the penis amidst the morass of complications of phimosis. Although rare, once this observation had been made, it presumably filtered down through the textbooks by rote, rather than scientific study. A few reports had appeared in the early 20th century indicating that carcinoma of the penis was rare in circumcised men, but not until the debate over neonatal circumcision erupted in the medical press in the 1930s that this surgical `mantra' was put to the test. In 1932, the editor of the Lancet challenged Abraham Wolbarst [52], a New York urologist, to prove his contention (in a previous Lancet editorial), that circumcision prevented penile carcinoma. Wolbarst responded by surveying every skin, cancer and Jewish hospital in the USA, along with 1250 of the largest general hospitals throughout the Union. With this survey, he was able to show that penile cancer virtually never occurred in circumcised men and that the risk related to the timing of the circumcision. Over the years this association has been reaffirmed by many research workers, although general hygiene, demographic and other factors such as human papilloma virus and smoking status are probably just as important [53]. However, Wolbarst established that association through formal scientific enquiry and proponents of the procedure continue to use this as a compelling argument for circumcision at birth.

Almost as an extension to the lack of penile cancer in Jews, Handley [54] reported on the infrequency of carcinoma of the cervix in Jewish women. He suggested that this related to the fact that Jewish men were circumcised. Not surprisingly, this spawned a mass of contradictory studies and over the next 50 years the champions of both camps have sought to establish the importance or irrelevance of circumcision in relation to penile cancer. The pendulum has swung both ways and the current evidence suggests that other factors are probably more important [55,56]. A similar debate has raged for 50 years over concerns for the risks of urinary tract infections in young boys and currently, any decreased risk associated with circumcision remains tentative but not proven [56].

However, during the two World Wars, governments became increasingly interested in reducing the risk of venereal disease amongst their soldiers. Clearly, such pathology can have a profound effect on the efficiency of fighting armis. Indeed, in 1947 the Canadian Army [57] found that whereas 52% of their soldiers had foreskins intact, 77% of those treated for venereal disease were uncircumcised. Persuasive arguments to circumcise all conscripts were proposed. Furthermore, it was an age-old observation, and indigenous African healers had promoted circumcision to prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted disease for centuries [58]. As might be expected, the evidence did not withstand further scientific scrutiny and numerous contradictions were provided [56] However, there has recently been startling evidence that HIV infection is significantly associated with the uncircumcised status [59]. Indeed, one author has recently suggested routine neonatal circumcision on a world-wide scale as a long-term strategy for the control of AIDS [60]: a whole new chapter opens in this ancient debate!

Finally, controversy has arisen over who should perform the procedure. Once circumcision had been `medicalized' in the 19th century, many surgeons were keen to take paying customers away from the religious men. As such, doctors were often quick to highlight the unforseen risks attendant on a non-medical procedure. For instance, Cabot (1924) [61] described tuberculosis of the penis occurring when Rabbis with infected sputum sucked on the baby's penis to stop the bleeding. However, it has often been claimed that the incidence of complications in Jewish children is very low and that the final result is usually better than any hospital doctor can produce [62, 63]. Naturally, quality control is variable and whereas not all commentators have had such respect for the religious men [64,65], others have been quick to indicate the sub-optimal results frequently obtained in hospital [29]. Not surprisingly, disastrous accounts damning practitioners from all quarters have embellished the literature on countless occasions. Irrespective, the circumcision of young boys has become a thriving business for all parties [66].

However, with a healthcare budget of $140 million per year in the USA (1990) [67], insurance companies eventually forced closer scrutiny. Following such pressure, the first Task Force of Neonatal Circumcision from the American Academy of Pediatrics (1n 1975) concluded that there was no valid medical indication for this procedure [68]. However, the pro-circumcision lobby was strong and the task force was forced to re-evaluate. In 1989, they conceded that there may be certain advantages to neonatal circumcision, although their recommendations did stop short of advising routine operation [56]. Similar pressures in the UK have now resulted in only certain Health Authorities being prepared to pay for the procedure. These tend to be in regions with large ethnic minorities who otherwise may suffer form `back street' circumcisions [62, 64].

Thus it is clear that medical trends are now being driven by financial constraints. Perhaps this is reflected by the dramatic decline in the number of non-religious circumcisions performed over the last half century in the USA an estimated 80% of boys were circumcised in 1976 [69] but by 1981 this had fallew to 61% [67], and recent estimates suggest that this decrease continues [70]. In the UK the decline has been even more dramatic: originally more common in the upper classes [44], circumcision rates fell from 30% in 1939 to 20% in 1949 and 10% by 1963. By 1975 only 6% of British schoolboys were circumcised [71] and this may well have declined further [63]. Whether this general trend reflects a tempering of attitudes towards the persuasive medical rhetoric that has simmered for the past 100 years, or whether financial considerations have dampened enthusiasm, is unknown. Perhaps the First World cultures are witnessing an escape from the medical paternalism that has gripped them for so long, or even that the age-old ritual is simply no longer fashionable in modern peoples again, it is unknown. However, whatever the current trend, ebbing or flowing, we can be sure that the controversies of circumcision will continue to colour the medical literature, far into the future.

Many historical accounts of circumcision have been written and most authors have used their survey to form an opinion as to whether the neonatal procedure is justified. The weak medical arguments are tempered by the importance of cultural and religious factors. In truth, the real reasons why circumcision has evolved are much broader. Opponents of the ritual draw attention to the `rights' of the new-born, which, they argue, mut be upheld [66]. Others contest that humans are social animals and cannot survive alone they require their parents, community and culture to thrive, and, as such, `rights' belong to the group, not to the individual. If there is an inherent survival advantage to a group of humans who chose to maim their young, then this is presumably evidenced by their continued survival as a race [11]. In short, to conclude any historical reflection with a reasoned `right' or `wrong', would be like claiming to have fathomed human nature itself. Consider this mankind has developed this strange surgical signature that is so pervasive, that in the last five minutes alone, another 120 boys throughout the world have been circumcised.


History of Philosophy and Conceptual Cartography



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PBS FRONTLINE - Waco: The Inside Story (1995) [00:59:56]

Ladies and gentlemen, I give you, the new head of the ATF.

The same David Chipman who claimed in a reddit ama that the Branch Davidians used Browning .50 caliber machine guns to shoot down two military helicopters even though this event never happened?

David Chipman, one of the ATF agents present at the ruby ridge massacre where agents entrapped a man into creating illigal sawed off shotguns, then murdered several of his family members including his unarmed wife.

David Chipman who advocates for vastly overstepping gun controls laws, and claims that anyone who has bought a gun in the last 2 years is just a neckbeard "obsessed with the zombie apocalypse"

Yeah he seems like the perfect choice as the head of a government agency that is meant to non-biasly enforce federal laws, but instead has a history of unilaterally changing them on a whim. I'm sure nothing could possibly go wrong here.


Conteúdo

Oral tradition Edit

One telling of Hadza's oral history divides their past into four epochs, each inhabited by a different culture. According to this tradition, in the beginning of time the world was inhabited by hairy giants called the akakaanebee "first ones" or geranebee "ancient ones". o akakaanebee did not possess tools or fire they hunted game by running it down until it fell dead they ate the meat raw. They did not build houses but slept under trees, as the Hadza do today in the dry season. In older versions of this story, fire was not used because it was physically impossible in the earth's primeval state, while younger Hadza, who have been to school, say that the akakaanebee simply did not know how.

In the second epoch, the akakaanebee were succeeded by the xhaaxhaanebee "in-between ones", equally gigantic but without hair. Fire could be made and used to cook meat, but animals had grown more wary of humans and had to be chased and hunted with dogs. o xhaaxhaanebee were the first people to use medicines and charms to protect themselves from enemies and initiated the epeme rite. They lived in caves.

The third epoch was inhabited by the people of hamakwanebee "recent days", who were smaller than their predecessors. They invented bows and arrows, and containers for cooking, and mastered the use of fire. They also built huts like those of Hadza today. The people of hamakwabee were the first of the Hadza ancestors to have contact with non-foraging people, with whom they traded for iron to make knives and arrowheads. They also invented the gambling game lukuchuko.

The fourth epoch continues today and is inhabited by the hamayishonebee "those of today". When discussing the hamayishonebee epoch, people often mention specific names and places, and can approximately say how many generations ago events occurred. [19]

Archaeology and genetic history Edit

The Hadza are not closely related to any other people. The Hadza language was once classified with the Khoisan languages because it has clicks however, since there is no evidence they are related, Hadza is now considered an isolate. [20] Genetically, the Hadza do not appear to be particularly closely related to Khoisan speakers: even the Sandawe, who live just 150 kilometres (93 mi) away, diverged from the Hadza more than 15,000 years ago. Genetic testing also suggests significant admixture has occurred between the Hadza and Bantu, while minor admixture with the Nilotic and Cushitic-speaking populations has occurred in the last few thousand years. [2] Today, a few Hadza women marry into neighbouring groups such as the Bantu Isanzu and the Nilotic Datoga, but these marriages often fail and the woman and her children return to the Hadza. [21] In previous decades, rape or capture of Hadza women by outsiders seems to have been common. [22] During a famine in 1918–20 some Hadza men were reported as taking Isanzu wives. [21]

The Hadza's ancestors have probably lived in their current territory for tens of thousands of years. Hadzaland is just 50 kilometres (31 mi) from Olduvai Gorge, an area sometimes called the "Cradle of Mankind" because of the number of hominin fossils found there, and 40 kilometres (25 mi) from the prehistoric site of Laetoli. Archaeological evidence suggests that the area has been continuously occupied by hunter gatherers much like the Hadza since at least the beginning of the Later Stone Age, 50,000 years ago. Although the Hadza do not make rock art today, they consider several rock art sites within their territory, probably at least 2,000 years old, to have been created by their ancestors, and their oral history does not suggest they moved to Hadzaland from elsewhere. [23]

Precolonial period Edit

Until about 500 BCE, Tanzania was exclusively occupied by hunter-gatherers akin to the Hadza. The first agriculturalists to enter the region were Cushitic-speaking cattle herders from the Horn of Africa. Around 500 CE the Bantu expansion reached Tanzania, bringing populations of farmers with iron tools and weapons. The last major ethnic group to enter the region were Nilotic pastoralists who migrated south from Sudan in the 18th century. [26] Each of these expansions of farming and herding peoples displaced earlier populations of hunter-gatherers, who would have generally been at a demographic and technological disadvantage, and vulnerable to the loss of environment resources (i.e., foraging areas and habitats for game) as a result of the spread of farmland and pastures. [27] Therefore, groups such as the Hadza and the Sandawe are remnants of indigenous hunter-gatherer populations that were once much more widespread, and are under pressure from the continued expansion of agriculture into areas which they have traditionally occupied.

Farmers and herders appeared in the vicinity of Hadzaland relatively recently. The pastoralist Iraqw and Datoga were both forced to migrate into the area by the expansion of the Maasai, the former in the 19th century and the latter in the 1910s. The Isanzu, a Bantu farming people, began living just south of Hadzaland around 1850. The Hadza also have contact with the Maasai and the Sukuma west of Lake Eyasi. The Hadza's interaction with many of these peoples has been hostile. In particular, the upheavals caused by the Maasai expansion in the late 19th century caused a decline in the Hadza population. Pastoralists often killed Hadza as reprisals for the "theft" of livestock, since the Hadza did not have the notion of animal ownership, and would hunt them as they would wild game. [12]

The Isanzu were also hostile to the Hadza at times, and may have captured them for the slave trade until as late as the 1870s (when it was halted by the German colonial government). Later interaction was more peaceable, with the two peoples sometimes intermarrying and residing together, though as late as 1912, the Hadza were reported as being "ready for war" with the Isanzu. The Sukuma and the Hadza had a more amiable relationship the Sukuma drove their herds and salt caravans through Hadza lands, and exchanged old metal tools, which the Hadza made into arrowheads, for the right to hunt elephants in Hadzaland. The general attitude of neighbouring agro-pastoralists towards the Hadza was prejudicial they viewed them as backwards, not possessing a "real language", and made up of the dispossessed of neighbouring tribes that had fled into the forest out of poverty or because they committed a crime. Many of these misconceptions were transmitted to early colonial visitors to the region who wrote about the Hadza. [13]

20th century Edit

In the late 19th century, European powers claimed much of the African continent as colonies, a period known as the Scramble for Africa. The Hadza became part of German East Africa, though at the time the colony was proclaimed there is no evidence that Hadzaland had ever been visited by Europeans. The earliest mention of the Hadza in a written account is in German explorer Oscar Baumann's Durch Massailand zur Nilquelle (1894). The Hadza hid from Baumann and other early explorers, and their descriptions are based on second hand accounts.

The first Europeans to report actually meeting the Hadza are Otto Dempwolff and Erich Obst. The latter lived with them for eight weeks in 1911. German Tanganyika came under British control at the end of the First World War (1917), and soon after the Hadza were written about by British colonial officer F. J. Bagshawe. The accounts of these early European visitors portray the Hadza at the beginning of the 20th century as living in much the same way as they do today. Early on Obst noted a distinction between the 'pure' Hadza (that is, those subsisting purely by hunting and gathering) and those that lived with the Isanzu and practised some cultivation.

The foraging Hadza exploited the same foods using many of the same techniques they do today, though game was more plentiful because farmers had not yet begun directly encroaching on their lands. Some early reports describe the Hadza as having chiefs or big men, but they were probably mistaken more reliable accounts portray early 20th century Hadza as egalitarian, as they are today. [13] They also lived in similarly sized camps, used the same tools, built houses in the same style and had similar religious beliefs. [15]

The British colonial government tried to make the Hadza settle down and adopt farming in 1927, the first of many government attempts to settle them. The British tried again in 1939, as did the independent Tanzanian government in 1965 and 1990, and various foreign missionary groups since the 1960s. Despite numerous attempts, they proved to be a failure in the long run generally the Hadza willingly settle and take advantage of provided food, but leave and return to foraging when the food stocks runs out few have permanantly adopted farming. Another problem is disease – because their communities are sparse and isolated, few Hadza are immune to common infectious diseases such as measles, which thrive in sedentary communities, and several settlement attempts ended with outbreaks of illness resulting in many deaths, particularly of children.

Of the four villages built for the Hadza since 1965, two (Yaeda Chini and Munguli) are now inhabited by the Isanzu, Iraqw and Datoga. Another, Mongo wa Mono, established in 1988, is sporadically occupied by Hadza groups who stay there for a few months at a time, either farming, foraging or taking advantage of food given to them by missionaries. At the fourth village, Endamagha (also known as Mwonyembe), the school is attended by Hadza children, but they account for just a third of the students there. Numerous attempts to convert the Hadza to Christianity have also been largely unsuccessful. [14]

Tanzanian farmers began moving into the Mangola area to grow onions in the 1940s, but came in small numbers until the 1960s. The first German plantation in Hadzaland was established in 1928, and later three European families settled in the area. Since the 1960s, the Hadza have been visited regularly by anthropologists, linguists, geneticists and other researchers. [28]

Present Edit

In recent years, the Hadza's territory has seen increasing encroachment from neighbouring peoples. The western Hadza lands are now a private hunting reserve, and the Hadza are officially restricted to a reservation within the reserve and prohibited from hunting there. The Yaeda Valley, long uninhabited due to the tsetse fly, is now occupied by Datooga herders, who are clearing the Hadza lands on either side of the now fully settled valley for pasture for their goats and cattle. The Datooga hunt out the game, and their land clearing destroys the berries, tubers, and honey that the Hadza rely on, along with watering holes for their cattle causing the shallow watering holes the Hadza rely on to dry up. [16] Most Hadzabe are no longer able to sustain themselves in the bush without supplementary food such as ugali.

After documentaries on the Hadza on PBS and the BBC in 2001, the Mang'ola Hadza have become a tourist attraction. Although on the surface this may appear to help the Hadzabe, much of the money from tourism is allocated by government offices and tourism companies rather than going to the Hadzabe. Money given directly to Hadzabe also contributes to alcoholism and deaths from alcohol poisoning have recently become a severe problem, further contributing to the loss of cultural knowledge. [17]

In 2007, the local government controlling the Hadza lands adjacent to the Yaeda Valley leased the entire 6,500 square kilometres (2,500 sq mi) of land to the Al Nahyan royal family of the United Arab Emirates for use as a "personal safari playground". [18] Both the Hadza and Datooga were evicted, with some Hadza resisters imprisoned. However, after protests from the Hadza and negative coverage in the international press, the deal was rescinded. [29]


Assista o vídeo: Imperialismo - Guerras - Crise do Século XX - Oficina da História